Русский | Chinese Messenger 2/1999
Archpriest John Du

Development of Russian Orthodox Church in Tianjin and its environs *

English Machine Translation

D.I.Petrovskogo's translation

History of distribution of Orthodox Church in China

The Beginning of distribution of Russian Orthodox church in China is necessary for 80th years of XVII century. It was the period of blossoming of board of Russian emperor Peter Velikogo and emperor Kangxi of a dynasty Cin. Russian tsars during of some generations sent on the east forwarding armies for capture of surburbs of our native land, the grounds belonging a province Heilongjiang. The Russian armies first of all have borrowed the city of Jaksu on northern I protect the Cupid in a province Heilongjiang, where the fort (the Cossack jail) at once has been constructed to resist to counteractions tsinskoj to army. In restored JAkse in the center on crossing of roads the orthodox temple of Revival Hristova has been constructed. In 1671 in suburban district has been constructed also a man's monastery in the name of Vsemilostivogo Spasa. Among indigenous population the sermon of Orthodoxy (then the indigenous population in the majority consisted from orochonov which were engaged in hunting and fishery) was conducted. JAksa, was originally small village of fishers, subsequently has turned in poluvoennyj city-fortress with posadom. Chineses in days of a dynasty Cin named this city JAksa, and Russian - Albazin.

Persevering aggression of Russia for a long time already drew attention of authorities of a dynasty Cin. On February 15/25, 1685 (24-th year of board of emperor Kangxi of a Qing dynasty on the 23rd day of the first month on the lunar calendar) has been given the order to the chapter of the basic manchurian znamennyh armies Pan Chunju, to the head of the case of defense Tun Bao, commanders of an auxiliary brigade Yes Ayr SHa and to general Lan Tana in chapter 3000 the soldier separately, from the sea and from a land, two ways to attack JAksu; in this connection war has burst JAksskaja. Within a year of military actions JAksa passed from hands in hands, thus a temple and a monastery was the center of military actions twice, were srovneny with the ground.

As a result JAksskoj wars it has been captured a lot of Russian, many Russian have voluntary surrendered in captivity TSinskoj of army. According to tsinskim to governmental decrees of that time, Russian voennoplennye should be convoyed to Beijing for expectation of the further order of emperor Kangxi. During time of a way of Russian voennoplennyh to Beijing the part of people has died on road of illnesses, the part of people has been repatriated and has returned to Russia. By the moment of arrival in Beijing there were seven families of cossacks: Romanovs, Habarovy, JAkovlevy, Dubinins, Holostovy. Surnames of two others are unknown, as these families have not left descendants. This group of Russian after arrival in Beijing not only has not undergone to oppressions from TSinskogo the governments, and on the contrary, according to governmental decrees about naturalization of foreigners, it had been gave rather good conditions for existence, addressed with them level with manchurians. TSinsky emperor Kangxi has noticed this group of Russian cossacks, valiant bogatyrs, and the imperial decree has brought them in lists yellow with kajmoj znamennyh manchurian armies of the seventeenth podokruga the fourth capital management and has ranked them as imperial guards. This group of Russian soldiers-cossacks used the state salary, and also the rights and the compensations put of a modular iaiu??o?nei-Russian part (njujlu), and has located in Beijing. Their descendants have addressed to the government of a dynasty Cin for the sanction about granting the right to marry manchurians, and also opportunities inside of the podokruga to choose the boshen - ensigns with monthly received certain state salary. However it was not authorized to them to borrow civil state posts of officials, and also to enter army and to serve as soldiers.

From here it is visible, that TSinskim the government to this group of Russian had been gave privileges only for improvement of vital conditions, and in the political plan safety measures have been accepted.

All these Russian people professed Orthodoxy. When in 1685 (24 year of board of emperor Kangxi) at once after termination JAksskoj of the company Russian voennoplennye have arrived to Beijing, with them there has arrived ierej Maxim Leontev. Emperor Kangxi has resolved in Beijing inside of gate Dunchzhimen in lane Hutszjatsjuan to alter the Mongolian temple in the first orthodox temple in China. In a temple have placed brought of JAksskogo a monastery an icon of prelate Nikolai, and a temple have consecrated in honour of prelate Nikolai. (this icon has been written on the dressed leather and from generation to generation by Russian albazintsami was esteemed as an ancient relic. In 1956 headed the Beijing Spiritual Mission the chapter of Episcopal advice Patriarchal ekzarh Vladika Victor has taken away it in the USSR.) then this temple referred to "Lochamjao", it became the predecessor of Russian Northern farmstead - Bejguan.

From orthodox believers, except for descendants of five vysheupomjanutyh surnames and their relatives on a female line, in Beijing dealers from Russian caravans, merchants lived. Number novoobrashchennyh in Orthodoxy of Chineses was rather small. During subsequent times descendants of these five Cossack families basically served and helped with a temple, the name was fixed to them "albazintsy". For the orthodox temple of prelate Nikolai first in Beijing to priest Maxim Leontevu have sent from Russia from the Tobolsk diocese antimins, since this moment began possible to make the Liturgy.

After death of priest Maxim Leonteva albazintsy has addressed to TSinskomu to the government with the request to allow to send from Russia to Beijing clerics for continuation of fulfilment divine service. Emperor Kangxi has agreed with their request. The oeinei-Russian bilaterial governmental agreement was accepted, on which in 54 of emperor Kangxi of board (on April, 20th, 1715) archimandrite Ilarion (Lezhajsky) with mission from 10 person has arrived to Beijing. It was the first officially directed Orthodox Spiritual Mission from Russia for the sermon, a professional training, manual and association of descendants of Russian albazintsev.

 

Development of Orthodox church in China

During board of emperor Peter Velikogo external distribution of influence of Russia was accompanied by strengthening of missionary activity of Orthodox church.

Russian Orthodox Church sent to China new orthodox priests with trading caravans each time after the termination of service of the previous Mission.

The Chapter of the first Mission archimandrite Ilarion (Lezhajsky), priest Lavrenty, diakon Filimon and seven person of church attendants have arrived to Beijing Russian Northern farmstead Bejguan where the Russian Spiritual Mission has officially settled down.

In 1728 (5 year of board of emperor Is young CHzhena) between Russian and tsinskim by the governments has been concluded " eeoaenei-Russian kjahtinsky the contract ". Since then Russian Orthodox Mission from time turns to constantly operating organization. Together with trading contracts the contract that Russian priests in Orthodox Mission once in each ten years (became six years later) should be replaced has been concluded.

In 1732 (10 year of board of emperor Is young CHzhena), in Beijing in lane Duntszjaomin has been consecrated a new orthodox temple in the name of Sretenija gospodnja, become by the Southern farmstead of Mission where in 1860 Russian diplomatic mission in China has been accredited.

With 1715 (54 year of board of emperor Kangxi) on 1860 (10 year of board of emperor Sjan of the Fan) the structure of Mission was replaced 13 times, for these years have been accredited in Beijing 155 person. Mission directly submitted to the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Russia, annually received 12250 rbl. of the grant. In staff of Mission there were the people, engaged history, the humanities, educational sciences, astronomy and geography, studying of political and economic problems.

On August, 4th, 1818 (23 year of board of the emperor Tszja Cin) the Russian government puts before the Beijing Spiritual Mission a problem " all-round studying of economy and culture of China. Simultaneously it is necessary to report in due time for Russian Ministry for Foreign Affairs on significant events in the Chinese political life ". In 1845 (4 year of board of emperor Sjan of the Fan) it is repeatedly confirmed: " the Primary goal of Mission consists in the help to coming officials again sent to Beijing to mission to collect their interesting concerning to China and dependent territories authentic data ". For example: the ninth chief of orthodox Spiritual mission archimandrite Iakinf (Bichurin) during service (1809-1820) Has become famous for following works " the Note about Mongolia ", " the Description of Tibet ", " History of Tibet and Tsinghai ", " the Description of Turkestan and Dzungaria ", " the Description of nationalities of the Central Asia " together with others eleven, concerning to the description of the Chinese frontier areas. During stay in Beijing father Iakinf has still carried out survey of the got grounds, has written and Cin " has published " the Description of all people of a dynasty. In glorified father Iakinfa books the sizes of the Beijing city wall (height of a wall of 33,5 foots, the top width of 50 foots, width at the basis of 62 foots), number of a city gate and distances between them are resulted. For that moment (years of board of emperor It is young CHzhena) Beijing had 16 main streets, 384 lanes, 370 bridges, 700 temples, - all this is reflected in its descriptions. It has made detailed records about folk customs, holidays and national kitchens, clothes, lives. Besides it has drawn the plan of the Beijing walls, the level of carefulness of this work subsequently amazed all. The world glory to it the first has brought made by it " the ?onnei-Chinese dictionary ". Father Iakinf (Bichurin) about this day is called in Russia as the first sinologom, the expert on China, scientists-orientalist.

In 1900 (26 year of board of emperor Guan Sjuja) during revolt ihetuanej the chapter of 18-th Beijing Spiritual Mission, archimandrite Innokenty (Figurovsky) and a part of employees had time to be covered in Russian diplomatic mission. After revolt ihetuanej has sufferred defeat, arhim. Innokenty and staff of Mission temporarily lived in northern wall of a palace It is young he as Russian Northern farmstead - Bejguan has been reduced to ashes. In 1901 (28 year of board of emperor Guan Sjuja), it has come back to Russia to report on the Sacred Synod a detailed course of events of revolt ihetuanej in China, simultaneously arhim. Innokenty has made the offer on a reconstruction and development of the Beijing Spiritual Mission. The sacred Synod has highly estimated merits of the Chief of Mission in heavy days of revolt ihetuanej. It has been erected in a dignity of bishop, and then directed to China to head new Beijing Spiritual Mission.

With Vladika Innokentiem from Russia to China there has arrived updating new Mission: ieromonahi, ierodiakony, monks, etc. Besides Vladika Innokenty subsequently has expanded Russian Northern farmstead - Bejguan: from Russia there has arrived a party of technicians, approximately 40 person. Since then number of employees of the Russian Spiritual Mission in Bejguane has considerably increased.

Vladika Innokenty, having taken advantage received from TSinskogo the governments the contribution (after revolt ihetuanej in 1900) at a rate of 18 000 lan silver, has bought near Bejguanja a part of an estate of family of the fourth son of emperor Tsjan the Moon for construction of a temple in the name of All Sacred martyrs. Remains of 222 victims during revolt ihetuanej the Chinese martyrs have been put in six prepared stone coffins and buried in a crypt under a temple.

After opening a temple of All Sacred martyrs the Sacred Synod has directed the report to emperor Nikolai II, with the offer to establish on June, 24th on new style (on old style on June, 11th) day of memory of sacred Chinese martyrs, and on the eve, on June, 23rd, to establish day of a strict post. Vladika Innokenty, having received from the Sacred Synod the notice, the list of names 222 ubiennyh during revolt ihetuanej has dispatched in all temples, ordering every year these two days in all Chinese temples to make in their memory solemn services. Subsequently in Bejguane have been constructed Uspensky a cathedral, temple Svt. Innokentija and a high belltower, church library, an observatory, man's and female monasteries, man's and female school, art school, an orthodox cemetery, service constructions. Besides owing to the technicians which has arrived from Russia and masters, in Bejguane the mill, a dairy farm, an apiary, a weaver's manufactory, a printing house, a binding workshop, a premise for cultivation shelkovichnyh are constructed and started worms, an orchard, the kitchen gardens, one small power station and other industrial objects. The territory borrowed then " Russian Bejguanem ", made approximately 20 hectares. Besides it, in a city boundaries the shop on sale of a rice flour and noodles has been opened, simultaneously in area Dundandatsze and Sinkajlu three-tier houses are constructed specially for tenancy. All vysheupomjanutye the enterprises coped Russian priests and Russian technicians. At that time Chineses wished, that their children studied at temple school or worked at the church factory, many of them addressed in Orthodoxy.

Influence of Orthodox Church extended in China: in Beijing - Sishan, to the east of Beijing - Tunchzhou, and also CHzhosjan, Fanshan, JUnpin, Gubejkou, Badahangou, Changchiakou, Tianjin, Bejdajhe, in Shandong - Qingdao, JAntaj, to the south - Shanghai, Hankow, in Guangdong - to the Thorn, naaa?i-to the east - Shenyang, Liushung, Dalian, Changchun, Harbin, Hajlar, JAkesa, Tsitsihar, Manchzhouli (Manchuria), in Sintszjane - Urumchi and so forth Everywhere were erected orthodox temples, missionary stany. All country has been divided into dioceses.

Before October revolution every day in Russian orthodox temples behind morning and evening divine service on great and especial ektenjah the application was added: " For present Russian great emperor Nikolai II and its imperial sort to the Lord we shall pray ". Daily during a liturgy on the Great input, the priest or diakon the person to believers added the application: " Present great Russian emperor Nikolai II and its imperial sort yes will be remembered by the Lord the God in TSarstvii the always, nowadays and prisno and for ever and ever ". On a name-day of emperor Nikolai II, in each temple celebratory services were solemnly spent and prays about its well-being were read. Then in China in each local orthodox church were served thankful molebny in honour of the Russian emperor.

After a victory of October revolution of church metropolitan Antony (Hrapovitsky) and many Russian refugees have been compelled to leave Soviet Union to Serbia and to organize the Synod in exile. In Beijing the central management and all eparchial managements have recognized this Serbian Synod in exile and have not recognized the Moscow church management. Down to capitulation of the Japanese imperialism in 1945, in the central management of the Beijing Orthodox Church and in all eparchial managements russkopoddannye bishops, priests and the other church personnel, overwhelming majority have accepted the Soviet citizenship and have simultaneously recognized the Moscow Patriarchy, since then have for ever broken off attitudes with the Serbian Synod of orthodox church in exile.

In 1949 the Chinese National Republic was formed. In process of a birth of the new Chinese state, Chinese people really found the sovereignty. Similar process went and in Orthodox church, the Chinese Orthodox Church was officially formed. There was a Chinese candidate for the bishops, ready to incur a historical problem to rise in the chapter of Actually Chinese Church. By means of the contract between the Chinese government and the Soviet government, archpriest Du Zhun Chen (albazinets, descendant Dubinin) per 1950 goes to Moscow where rukopolagaetsja in a dignity of bishop and becomes in the chapter Shanghai dioceses (bishop Simeon).

Per 1957 archpriest of Beijing orthodox church Jao Fu An (albazinets, descendant Jakovleva) also goes to Moscow and after rukopolozhenija in bishop (bishop Vasily), becomes thus the second bishop from Chineses and heads the Beijing faculty. The situation when the Orthodox church in China coped Russian people from now on has come to the end.

 

Creation of orthodox church in Tianjin

Up to 1895 (21 year of board Tsinskogo of emperor Guan Sjuja) Tianjin was one of the major northern open ports, very highly developed railway junction-port. Russian in Tianjin were engaged in export of furs, tea and to that a similar trading craft. They basically have concentrated in area Hebei. For example, in Tianjin there was Russian merchant Litvinov who in Sanchahekou (Hajhesyan) has founded foreign trading firm Sabaoshi (till now near to a former site of this firm there is one small lane, on former named Sabaoshi). Michael Batuev then in present street Chzhunshanlu has opened a prospering trading foreign firm. In area of present Northern station there were their warehouses. Arrived to Tianjin after their Russian dealer Kulaev also on TSzinchzhunshan lu has opened a factory, had the office, accounts department, a planning section, office and warehouses. Though number of Russian businessmen was insignificant, they conducted greater on those times trade.

All these Russian professed Orthodoxy, but because of that that then in Tianjin there was no orthodox temple, on greater church holidays they asked to send from the Central management of the Beijing Spiritual mission the priest to Tianjin to satisfy their religious needs. The chapter of the Beijing Spiritual Mission archimandrite Innokenty every year 1-2 times came to Tianjin, borrowed on Bejchzhan (northern station) one compartment in the car of a passenger train and did there the temporary prayful house that Russian people could take part in a life of church. And only in 1904 (30 year of board Tsinskogo of emperor Guan Sjuja) the central management of the Beijing Spiritual Mission in Tianjin on prospectus Hebejsjaoguan rented the one-storeyed house and has made in it the prayful house, having sent for the sermon of the Chinese on surname CHzhao. Every time on greater church holidays still from Beijing the central management sent Russian ieromonaha Avraamija. Together with it for carrying out of divine service came psalomshchik and chorus. During this period have accepted a christening and 200 Chineses have entered into church approximately.

In 1909 (board Tsinskogo of emperor Sjuantuna) the small prayful house have closed. The small temple in a garden in territory of Russian concession (now the area Hedun and Southern station there settles down) has been constructed. This temple has been constructed as a monument of 108 Russian militarians, ubiennym during suppression of revolt ihetuanej, and consecrated in honour of the Savior. This marble temple was contained approximately by 20 person. For Chinese believers lived on prospectus Hebejsjaoguan the way to a temple was far enough, people came a little, for this reason arrival consisted only of a small number of Russian people.

In June, 1970 during civil work on the location former pridela churches, have been dug out a memorial mortgage stone, a silver board with the engraved text and seven Russian imperial roubles.

The Mortgage stone has been buried on depth of two meters. A stone of the square form, length of the party 43, thickness 15,5 see On the external party square dredging in a stone which length of the party 25,5, depth 8 see In the center of dredging is placed a silver board in length 23 is drilled, the width 9, thickness 0,1 see On a silver board engrave in Russian following text: " At summer 1901 from Christmas Hristova, on June, 30th in the seventh year of reign of emperor vseja Russia of Nikolai Vtorago, this memorial mortgage stone is incorporated, at personal presence ordering by Far East armies and the Pacific Navies, the Far East governor of general Evgenie Ivanovicha Alekseeva, chairman of committee on a construction of a temple-monument general-lieutenant Tszitszeseli. The designer the senior officer of naval ministry Antszibofu and the architect the military engineer lieutenant colonel Geligeljanke ". The silver plate from a underside had small dredging in length 19, width 5, depth of 3 centimeters, inside of dredging seven Russian roubles (five gold, two silver were located.

After a victory over 1917 of October revolution, weight of emigrants from Russia - including aristocracy, militarians, landowners, merchants and other layers naselenija-have been compelled to run to China. In Tianjin Russian was more than 110 person. So number of believers of orthodox church in Tianjin has increased, the church began to extend.

In 1920 Russian tjantszintsy have applied to the chapter of the Central management of the Beijing Orthodox Church to bishop Innokentiju to send on constant service of the priest for regular fulfilment of divine services. Soon the Beijing central management sends archpriest Fr. Paul Razumova who has become by the first constant priest in Tjantszinskoj Orthodox church, temple simultaneously selected by the prior and brotherly advice.

In 1922 of Reasons leaves Tianjin and leaves for America. The central management of the Beijing orthodox church directs on its place ieromonaha Fr. Victor (Svjatina). O.Victor came from religious family, its father was the orthodox priest. O.Viktor during study in seminary has been called on military service, served in imperial army as the officer later, in 1920 has got from Russia to China in Sintszjan. Together with group beloemigrantov has arrived to Beijing and has found a shelter at then bishop of the Beijing church of Vladika Innokentija. Soon it has accepted monastic postrig with a name Victor and has been imposed in a dignity ieromonaha. In 1925 on a place of a former small temple on donations collected Fr. Victor had been constructed a temple of Cover Presvjatoj of the Virgin, calculated on 100 person. Ieromonah Victor perezahoronil remains of 108 killed soldiers before an altar of a temple, on the western wall before an input in a temple have been established three marble slabs on which surnames of victims are cut out. And the chapter of the Beijing Spiritual Mission Vladika Innokenty has erected this time Fr. Victor in a dignity of archimandrite.

During service by the prior in Tianjin Fr. Victor has involved in affairs of charity of Russian rich merchants Batueva, Kulaeva, the chief of engineering management of former Russian concessions of the citizen of France ZHibulakova, on donations Russian school, hospital, library and other charitable establishments has been opened. Then Russian emigrant cemetery has been transferred in Hedun dachzhiguhoutaj, has extended kladbishchenskaja the area, the chapel has been constructed. During this period Fr. Victor have appointed decent all temples in Tianjin, and its temple of Cover Presvjatoj of the Virgin became a cathedral.

After an attack to China Japan in 1939 the Japanese authorities have altered a cathedral of Cover Presvjatoj of the Virgin under a warehouse. In territory of Russian hospital Sjaoljuchzhuan (nowadays area Hesi, hospital of the Red Cross) the orthodox community in Tianjin has started to build other cathedral of Cover Presvjatoj of the Virgin according to the former sample. This temple has been finished 1941

In 1930 the Chinese archpriest Chang Xiji, differently Chang Fu (its father was the cleric in the Beijing Orthodox church, occured it come from religious family) in Tianjin has based the Chinese orthodox prayful house first in China, having named it Piously-eiiieaioeaaneei a temple. By virtue of that archpriest Tub Fu was the Chinese, in divine service the Chinese language was used. The main temple administrative advice was simultaneously generated from Chineses. To this temple for acceptance of participation in a church life came not only believing Chineses, but also Russian. Such position proceeded up to 1949

In 1933 archpriest Chang Fu > via metropolitan of Japanese orthodox church Sergija (the subject USSR) has established communication with Orthodox Church in Soviet Union and has recognized the Moscow Patriarchy. This act has at that time caused serious friction and sharp contradictions between tjantszinskim archimandrite Victor and the priest Chang. As it has been told above, the Central management of the Beijing Orthodox Church with 1917 has not recognized the Moscow Patriarchy as was under jurisdiction of Foreign Orthodox Church. The chapter of orthodox church in Tianjin Fr. Victor and beloemigranty also carried itself to Foreign church. Between parishioners there were the disagreements, the Chinese orthodox church founded Chang Fu was named " red party church ". At this time arhim. Victor has been erected in a dignity of bishop and the priest Chang Fu has not recognized it. Movement Chang Fu has been supported by then Chinese church and a part of Russian church. Thus, led by Chang Fu the Chinese Orthodox Church has turned to the independent church organization for the Chinese believers. Tiajin Piously-eiiieaioeaaneee the temple always concerned to the Chinese Orthodox Church, priests served in this temple were Chineses - after Chang Fu were Rui Xianzhang, Du Runchen, Du Likun and other.

Orthodoxy in Tianjin gradually extended, temples in addition were under construction, number of believers continuously grew. In 1933 in 32-nd street of English concession (nowadays the Shanghai road - Shanhaidao) in the Russian house for aged (almshouse) is arranged Piously-na?aoeiianeee a temple. In 1944 the sports hall of Russian emigrant club in then 11-th street of English concession (now street Tszjanshelu) is altered under a temple named in honour of Prelate Nikolai. Besides the chapel near Russian cemetery on Hedun dachzhiguhoutaj is altered in a temple in the name of All Sacred.

The Orthodox church had in Tianjin up to five temples. Together with Chineses, Greeks and believers from other countries, number orthodox in Tianjin from time to time exceeded 5000 person, from them believing Chineses was nearby 200 person. The greatest inflow of the believers visited temples, is necessary for the period 1929 - 1939

After Russian emigrants have settled in Tianjin, the some people began to be engaged in trade, import and export of goods, have opened the firms trading furs, woolen factories, carpet factories, printing houses, Russian-speaking publishing houses, factories of alcoholic drinks, Russian restaurants, a forge factory, bakeries, shops of dairy products, shoe shops, trading houses, epicures and other. These industrial and trading objects basically opened in area of streets Sjaobajlou, TSzefanlu, Dagulu and Hedunshisantszinlu. In city there were Russian privately practicing doctors, lawyers, the lawyers, many Russian were employees and workers in foreign firms and trading houses, taught Russian.

In all orthodox holidays Russian believers - men and women, old and young - came to temples to take part in joint divine service. All life of Russian people (the birth, marriage, an old age, illness, death) are reflected in orthodox ceremonies. Besides they still marked the national holidays and arranged country guljanija. Priors of orthodox temples, members prihodskogo advice got out of believers of Russian origin. So around of Orthodoxy in Tianjin there was a small Russian society. It had the internal life with the maintenance, an origin and habits, and there lived in Tianjin some tens years.

During the second world war (1937-1945), Approximately in 1938 in Tianjin a little the extremely reactionary, adjusted antisovetski and antikommunisticheski emigrants from Russia and the Japanese imperialists mutually having entered into arrangement, have founded " Russian emigrant committee on struggle against communism " which was supervised by the Japanese occupational bodies of gendarmerie and the secret police collected materials and data for the Japanese invaders, and simultaneously served for the Japanese interventionists the division protecting in the Chinese north railways for drawing of damage to Chinese people and undermining of the antiJapanese movement. Then in the north of China in such cities as Beijing, Tianjin, Changchiakou, Qingdao, Shandong, Yantai and other, presumably in each of them have been organized " Russian emigrant anticommunistic committees " .tak as in Tianjin the corresponding organization has been created before others, here was severokitajskoe the central management of " anticommunistic committees ". </P>

In 1938 become archbishop Victor and appointed to serve as the chapter of the Central management of the Beijing orthodox church to Tianjin mitrofornyj archpriest Valentine Sinaisky used Orthodox church for anticommunistic activity. Both of them constantly cooperated with the Japanese occupational authorities and beloemigrantskimi leaders in Beijing and Tianjin. Every time in days of memory of Russian emperors and anniversaries of the basis " Committee on struggle against communism " they necessarily came to building " Anticommunistic committee " for carrying out of divine services, simultaneously calling to take part priests of Russian citizenship from other temples. Activity of these two people found support at Japanese. Then published in Russian tjantszinskaja " the New newspaper of the revived Asia " and some number of Russian printed editions and magazines placed their photos, clause and the sermon.

In the central management of the Beijing orthodox church, under the special sanction of Vladika Victor, in Bejguane the secretary of the Japanese bodies of investigation and a little the extremely reactionary constantly lived beloemigrantov. They, being covered with religious activity, strove in Beijing, Tianjin and everywhere in the north of China on joint realization by the Japanese invaders and beloemigrantami all kinds of political transactions, gathering, they exchanged the political, economic information, simultaneously bore artful plans of restoration of a monarchy and domination of reaction.

In 1944 reorganization in Tianjin Russian emigrant club under a temple (the prior Fr. V.Sinajsky) has coincided with an anniversary of memory of emperor Nikolai II, therefore this temple has been consecrated in honour of Prelate Nikolai. Have simultaneously specially asked to send from an orthodox temple in Harbin the greater icon written by one nun representing emperor Nikolai II and all family (seven person) glorified in a face sacred, in memory of emperor this greater icon have placed inside of a temple on a place of honour, have decorated with the greater salary, with the engraved names of imperial family and a three-coloured national flag of Russia.

In 1945 after capitulation of the Japanese imperialism, in the Central management of the Beijing orthodox church and everywhere in separate managements bishops, priests, diakony, monks, the other church attendants had the Russian citizenship, including Vladika Victor and Fr. Valentine Sinaisky in the majority have accepted the Soviet citizenship and have recognized the Moscow Patriarchy. However the prior tjantszinskogo Serafimovskogo a temple archpriest Athanasius Shalabanov all time firmly kept the position, has not wished to accept the Soviet citizenship. In 1948 he has left Tianjin and has left for Australia.

During after construction in Tianjin orthodox temples (1909-1956), all it was totaled eight Russian origin rectors of temples:

All vysheupomjanutye priests acted as priors; before arrival to China many of them were officers of imperial Russia and military priests. They were the people actually operated Orthodox church in Tianjin.


* of Tianjin, archpriest John Du (+ 1983a.) Is published under the request of the son of the author of present clause in memory of its father, last orthodox priest
In present clause the unusual sight for the Russian reader of the Chinese historians on a problem of distribution of Orthodoxy in China is reflected traditional and at times. Back in the text