中文 | Русский | REVIEWS/Chinese Messenger 2/99
A.V.Lomanov, kand.filos.nauk
(IDV the Russian Academy of Science)
English Machine Translation

The Review of the book of professor Yue Feng
"Dongzhengjiao shi (History of Orthodoxy) " *

Occurrence of new Chinese works on Orthodoxy represents for the Russian reader natural interest for lets know, what problems more all worry present researchers from China. The book of the visible Chinese scientific-?aeeaeiaaaa Yue Feng published in June, 1999 is worthy as one of the first attempts of regular research of Orthodoxy in modern scientific circles of the Peoples Republic of China.

Professor Yue Modest and betraid to the business concerns to number of authoritative Chinese experts on Orthodoxy. It is well familiar to the Russian colleagues borrowed by studying by history of the Russian Spiritual mission in China, one of its publications recently was issued in Russian i. After the termination of the Beijing institute of foreign languages in the beginning of 1950th years, Yue Feng worked at philosophical faculty of the Beijing university, it has started to be engaged in studying of Orthodoxy with the end of 1970th years. Professor Yue posesses a lot of publications on problems of Orthodoxy, issued after second half 1980th years (last of them - sections on Orthodoxy in books " History of world religions from an antiquity up to the present [Shijie gutszin tszuntszjaoshi hua] " (1991, publishing house Shanu inshuguan) and " One thousand questions on christianity [TSzidutszjao tsjanven] " (1995, publishing house Huntsi chubanshe). Now to professor Yue Feng already under seventy, but it continues the scientific work as specially invited researcher at Institute of world religions of Academy of Social studies (AON) China.

Consisting of 17 chapters and 13 appendices the monography discusses the broad audience that, concerning to the doctrine of Orthodoxy and its history, first of all Russian Orthodox Church. Orientation to Russian subjects is symbolically emphasized by a set of illustrations - on a cover of the book the photo of the Cathedral of Vasily Blazhennogo on the Red area in Moscow is placed, placed in the beginning of the book a color insert the official photograph of the Most holy Patriarch Moscow and vseja Russia opens Alex Vtorogo. Images of icons resulted further and temples entirely concern to tradition of Russian Orthodoxy (one image of the Mother of god some drops out from this of some only with Baby Jesus, not being initial ikonografiej, but executed in style of secular painting the end of 19 centuries).

For expansion of our understanding about the attitude of modern Chinese scientists to orthodox subjects the books put in a basis accents, estimations and methodological approaches are rather important. In the foreword to "History" Yue Feng polemizes with "zapadotsentrizmom" the colleagues, marking thus: " In the past the Chinese scientists usually paid attention only to researches of western Catholicism and protestantizma, ignoring researches of east Orthodoxy. It is caused by influence of the theory of centrality of the western Christian culture. Actually, Orthodoxy also is very important as a part of east culture, it directly influences broad masses of people in Russia, the East Europe, the Far East and other regions, influences a policy, economy, history, culture and art of region. To understand people of this region and their history, culture and customs, it is necessary to understand Orthodoxy " (n.1.) Yue Feng emphasizes not only scientific necessity of complete studying of all three branches of world christianity, but also special importance of understanding of Orthodoxy for those who is interested in spiritual culture of Russia. The urgency of research is proved also by the reference to practical needs spent in the Peoples Republic of China from the end of 1970th years of policy of reforms and - " filling of emptiness " in understanding of Orthodoxy is required to an openness also that during friendly contacts and cultural exchanges to people of region, Chineses " would understand their Orthodox belief, would respect with their religious feelings, understood influence of Orthodoxy on history and cultures of their countries " (n.2.)

The Book opens discussion of history of an origin and becoming of Orthodoxy (ae.1). After that " the basic maintenance " Orthodoxy - initial texts (tszindjan) and the Creed, doctrines, "ceremonies" (ishi) Sacred Sacraments, holidays, svjashchennicheskaja hierarchy is considered, eight " the well-known monasteries " (Athos, Kiev laurels are listed with the brief description, to the Trinity-na?aeaa, Aeaenaia?i-Neva laurels, pochaevsky Uspensky, Solovetsky, Novodevichy and Danilovsky). This section (n.16-36) can be to rather useful beginning Russian researchers for mastering by necessary Chinese terminology (for example: the Patriarch mushou, metropolitan duchzhutszjao, archbishop dachzhutszjao, ekzarh duchzhutszjao, bishop chzhutszjao, archpriest dasytszi, archimandrite sjushidasytszi, the hegumen chzhuchisytszi, the priest sytszi, arhidiakon sjushidafutszi, diakon futszi, psalomshchik tuntszinshi).

In gl. 3 attempt to allocate " fundamental features " Orthodoxy is presented. The author has carried "conservatism", the "mysticism" to them, confirmed by references to K.Marx (!) works "dependence" on secular authority (n.46-47) and opposed centralization of Catholicism "polycentrism". By consideration of problems of orthodox philosophy Yue Feng has allocated stages of " scholastic philosophy " (eii.18 - ia?.19 century), " the mysterious doctrine about vseedinstve " (itsetuni de sjuansjue, na?.19 century), " new religious consciousness " (eii.19 - ia?.20 century) And tried to adapt to new (already "old") to a socialist social order of " modern orthodox philosophy ". As separate sections are considered orthodox ethics (ae.5) and art (ae.6.) Dostoin attention the fact of inclusion in the book of section (ae.15), devoted " to research of Orthodoxy by known Russian seminary students and philosophers before October revolution ". In it data on a life and V.S.Soloveva, S.N.Bulgakov and N.A.Berdjaeva's remained in China practically unknown down to end of 1980th years the religious-philosophical sights are resulted.

One of chapters of work (gl. 14) it is devoted to the review of history, features and modern position 15 avtokefalnyh and 2 independent (Finnish and Japanese) Orthodox churches. (the author, unfortunately, does not mention two others Orthodox TSerkvah, also having the independent status - Portuguese and Chinese). However the central place in the book is borrowed the chapter, with the devoted histories of Orthodoxy in Russia. Yue Feng in detail considers problems of arrival of Orthodoxy to Russia (ae.7), its subsequent development during the pre-revolutionary period (ae.8) and during the Soviet epoch (ae.8), chapter 10 and 11 are devoted to problems of the present. Estimating position of Russian Orthodoxy during an epoch " transition of Russia from socialism by capitalism ", the Chinese scientist marks it " ocurrence during rather equal development " (n.161) and the termination of the last nocuous atheistic policy of the state. At the same time the author specifies attempts of the Russian monarchists and nationalists to use Orthodoxy in the political interests.

A Lot of sections (first of all chapter 12, 13, 17 and enc. 6) books represents direct interest for domestic researchers of Orthodoxy in China. The statement of the events led occurrence in China of the Russian Spiritual mission, is under construction the author around of the thesis traditional for the Chinese historiography about " aggression of imperial Russia ". Yue Feng divides history of Orthodoxy in China into six stages: penetration of Orthodoxy into China; activity of Mission in Beijing from arrival of the first Mission per 1716 before signing Tjantszinskogo of the contract in 1858; distribution of Orthodoxy to China with 1858 before revolt ihetuanej in 1900; development of Orthodoxy in China (shares for the periods with 1900 before the Russian revolution of 1917 and with 1917 before the Chinese revolution of 1949); the final stage " decline of Orthodoxy in China " comes to an end 1956 when " the majority of the Russian emigrants have left China ". The author disagrees with those researchers that three stages allocate in history of distribution of Orthodoxy in China only. Though by the developed Chinese tradition concrete names have not been named, under our assumption, this polemic is turned to book CHzhan Putting " Orthodoxy and Orthodoxy in China ". In opinion Yue Feng, the beginning of the historical report should be 1665, instead of 1715. (the Chinese researchers, including Albazin the Chinese territory, the beginning of history of Orthodoxy in China believe consecration of an orthodox temple in Albazine. In the Russian historiography of the Beijing Mission it is considered to be the beginning of historical readout of existence of Orthodoxy in China 1685 - year of capture albazinskih cossacks the Chinese armies). Besides it, in its opinion, it is wrongful to transfer the termination of the second period for 1860 (date of signing of the Beijing contract). As to the final stage after formation of the Peoples Republic of China " despite of change of a situation, forces of Orthodoxy still existed, it operated " (with. 205) and consequently this period cannot be excluded from the general history of Chinese Orthodoxy.

Unfortunately, the description of history " blossoming and decline " Orthodoxy in China begins with a funny typing error - on p. 191 after Chinese transcription CHeernigefusytszi is evident the word written in Russian "Zhirinovsky". However speech here goes not about the present leader of LDPR, and about left in 1661 from ilimskogo a jail on the Cupid pjatidesjatnike Nikiforke Chernigov. On no?.197 the list of the reasons of small number of numbers Chinese orthodox (unwillingness of the Russian missionaries to go on a way kitaizatsii, absence of religious schools and charitable institutions, lack of money, internal unities and discipline) is attributed to opinion " corresponding member of the Russian academy of sciences, " kitaeveda "Veselovskogo". However the resulted reference to "materials" collected by N.I.Veselovskim ii Actually concerns to critical " to the Note without the name ", the eighth mission made by the chief by archimandrite Sofroniem (Gribovskim).

In gl. 13 rather substantial review of history of six Chinese orthodox dioceses - Beijing, Harbin, Tianjin, Shanghai, Hankou and Xinjiang is resulted brief, but. According to Yue Feng, in 1949 in Beijing it was totaled about 1000 orthodox (n.207), by 1966 in Harbin - more than 10 thousand (n.208). The Chinese Orthodox association created in 1935 (Zhongguo Dongzhengjiao sehuej) the author characterizes as " the unique Chinese Orthodox organization in Shanghai " (with. 211) to which problems concerned rallying around of the Shanghai diocese of the Chinese and Russian orthodox believers, " preservation of dogmas, expansion of the church organization, creation of church schools ".

Significant interest represents gl. 17, devoted to researches of Orthodoxy by the Chinese scientists in 20 century. It is informed, that the first publication on this theme was book Lo TSzinshena " History of east church [Dongfangjiaohui shi] " (1941, publishing house Guansjuehuej chubanshe), created on the basis of a rate of the lectures which have been read through in Protestant theological academy Tszinlin. Work was very wide on scope and included a historical sketch (from ikonoborchestva and falling of Constantinople up to now), stories about various orthodox churches, sacraments, customs and dogmas. On conclusion Yue Feng, the book " for the first time obobshchenno has told to the Chinese reader about sources and the maintenance of Orthodoxy, has given Chineses primary understanding of Orthodoxy that it is possible to name the big merit " (with. 260).

Yue Feng has allocated also two monographic works created after the beginning politicians " reforms and an openness " in the Peoples Republic of China. Book CHzhan Putting " Orthodoxy and Orthodoxy in China " [ color=#ff00ff>Dongzhengjiao yu Dongzhengjiao zai Zhongguo] " (1986, publishing house Sjuelin chubanshe) is characterized as the first research monography of the new period, drawn attention of the Chinese and foreign scientific circles. In it the history of split of christianity, development and features of Orthodoxy, history of distribution of Orthodoxy in China is considered. The main thing from advantages of this book names a wide support on primary sources. The second important research of Orthodoxy names section " East Orthodoxy [Dunfan chzhentszjao] " (the author Fan Tszjafan), entered in the book " Three great world religions and their currents [SHitsze san datszuntszjao tszitsi ljupaj] " (1988, publishing house Henan zhenmin chubanshe). In research origin of Orthodoxy, its dogmatic person and difference from the western christianity, the Greek influences, history of Orthodoxy in Russia (a christening of Russia, reform Nikona, policy Peter the Great, modern position) is considered. Useful to domestic researchers there can be also resulted Yue Feng a list of the Chinese journal publications about Orthodoxy with a statement of their basic maintenance (n.262-268.)

Among appendices to book Yue Feng it is possible to find interpretation Nikejskogo of the Creed, correspondence of the Holy See with Patriarch Konstantinopolskim (19 century), ecumenical declarations 1920-30-o years, and also the Chinese translations of all basic Soviet and Russian acts in the field of religion and creeds, since the decree of 1918 and down to the Law of the Russian Federation of 1997. Among these documents it is necessary to allocate especially representing doubtless value for domestic sinologov and researchers of Orthodoxy a reprint of a brief Orthodox catechism (Dongzhengjiao yaoli wenda), taken of the collection " CHzhentszjao chusjue tszichen " (1936, publishing house Shanghai Zhonghua Dongzhengjiao sehuej) (n.296-302.)

The Monography of professor Yue Feng represents attempt of comprehensive investigation of Orthodoxy, however in it it is difficult to not notice divided by the majority of the Chinese researchers of heightened interest to sociopolitical problems (the attitude of Church with secular authority and an education system, legislative regulation of a freedom of worship on an example of modern Russia). It is quite clear if to remember that deep influence which has rendered " the Soviet model " on formation of the state and ideological institutes of the Peoples Republic of China in 1950th years. The collapse of the Soviet system " scientific atheism " and revival of Russian Orthodoxy force the Chinese scientists to reflect on how it would be possible to combine optimum a freedom of worship, the state control and atheism proclaimed by correcting Communist Party over flexible model " socialism with the Chinese specificity ". Here that Feng writes about it Yue: " In particular after disintegration of the USSR, in Russia and the other states the "CIS" the ideology has undergone huge changes, orthodox formation has changed for itself atheistic formation, it demands from the Chinese scientists to put greater efforts to studying Orthodoxy as ideologies, it is necessary to create powerful research works, giving a material for development internal and foreign policy of our country " (with. 268).

It is necessary to note and that in the section, devoted to researches of Orthodoxy by the Soviet and Russian scientific circles in 20 century (gl. 16), the story about works Soviet " scientific atheists " is much more systematical and is thorough, than at the review of the Russian literature of 90th years. It is impossible to blame the author of the book for it, honesty tried to create complete and serious research work on Orthodoxy. In our opinion, has put here partly that the Soviet "scientifically-atheistic" works in the past regularly acted in the Peoples Republic of China on official channels of a book-exchange. In our days the Chinese scientists hardly are guided in a rich stream of the modern Russian religious literature which far not entirely reaches the Chinese scientific libraries. Undoubtedly that the Russian church and secular researchers should more actively and zainteresovanno be helped Chinese religiovedam - as with selection and reception of the most essential publications, and in explanation of various aspects of a modern life of Russian Orthodoxy.

i Yue Feng. Orthodox preachers and culture of China \\ History of the Russian spiritual mission in China: the Collection of clauses. Red. S.L.Tihvinsky, V.S.Mjasnikov, A.S.Ipatova, svjashch. Dionisy pozdnjaev. M.: Publishing house of the Piously-Vladimir brotherhood. 1997, p. 376-382 Back in the text

ii Veselovskij N.I. (Red.) Materials for history of the Russian Spiritual mission in Beijing. Vyp. 1. - St.-Petersburg, type. Central administrative board of destinies, 1905, no?.61-64. Back in the text

* Beijing: CHzhungo shehuej kesjue chubanshe. 1999. ISBN 7-5004-2438-8.366 p. Back in the text