The Julian Calendar

[1] Cf. Myths of the Peoples the World (in Russian), Moscow, 1980; Kun, N. A., Legends and Myths of Ancient Greece (in Russian), Moscow, 1955; Mircea Eliade, Le mythe de I’eternel retour, Paris, Gallimard, 1969; Paul Ricoeur, La metaphore vive, Paris, Seuil, 1975; Carl Gustav Jung, Man and his symbols, Aldus Books Limited, London, 1964.

[2] V. S. Soloviev, Collected Works (in Russian), Saint Petersburg, 1897—1900, v. 10, p. 231.

[3] The word "vremya" (time) apparently comes from the Sanskrit "vartma", and signifies ‘track" or "road." See Fasmer, Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language (in Russian), Moscow, 1986, v. 1, p. 361.

[4] Blessed Augustine, Works (in Russian), Kiev, 1914, v. 1, pp. 213—334.

[5] Cf. V. Trostnikov, Thoughts before Dawn (in Russian), Paris, 1980, p. 247.

[6] Blessed Augustine, op. cit.

[7] A. N. Zelinsky, "Constructive Principles of the Ancient Russian Calendar" in the book, Context of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (in Russian), Moscow, 1978, p. 62.

[8] Cf. A. N. Zelinsky, "Sanctified Time" (in Russian), Herald of the Russian Western European Patriarchal Exarchate (in Russian), No. 113, Paris, 1983, p. 210.

[9] Ibid., p. 215.

[10] Cf. Innocent, Archbishop of Peking, "An Open Letter to All the Faithful Children of Christ’s Church, Who Maintain the Orthodox Calendar and the Traditions of the Holy Catholic Church" (in Russian) in the book The Teaching of the Orthodox Church on Sacred Tradition and Its Relationship to the New Style (in Russian), compiled by Athonite Zealots of Orthodox Piety, Saint Job of Pochaev Press, Holy Trinity Monastery, Jordanville, NY 13361,1959, p 48.

[11] See Eusebius, The Life of Constantine, 3, 18—19; Socrates, Ecclesiastical History, 1,9; Theodoretus, Ecclesiastical History, 1, 10; Acts ef the Ecumenical Councils (in Russian), 2nd ed, Kazan, 1887, v. 1, page 76, document 16; Saint Athanasius, On the Councils, 5; To the African Bishops, 2.

[12] Acts of the Ecumenical Councils, edition in Russian translation by the Kazan Theological Academy, 2nd ed., Kazan, 1887, v. 1, p. 76, document 16.

[13] The Nicean definition "horos" on Pascha was not placed among the canons inasmuch as the discussion there was not about indicating the means of averting some violation which could always appear, but about a definition, by which means an important ecclesiastical question is decided once and for all. A similar definition is also the Nicean Council’s enactment that persons who have entered into marriage may also receive a priestly rank. This definition does not figure among the canons of the Nicean Council either. In the report of the Greek Orthodox Church, published in 1971 in connection with preparations for a "Pan-Orthodox Council," it is said that "both of these definitions (on Pascha and on married clergy) are a confirmation of the ancient Apostolic tradition and a refusal to subordinate the Church to that intentional premeditation to which the Roman Church subsequently adhered by introducing obligatory celibacy for the clergy and the new Gregorian Paschalia." The Nicean enactment on Pascha is confirmed by the first canon of the Local Council of Antioch, which took place later, only sixteen years after the Nicean Council. The indicated first canon of the Council of Antioch calls this enactment a definition (horos) and subjects to immediate excommunication ("henceforth already") everyone who celebrates Christ’s Pascha at the same time (on the same day) as the Jewish Passover. Such a severe sentence, which stipulates excommunication from the Church without a preliminary investigation of the act committed on the part of the local ecclesiastical authorities, is encountered exceptionally rarely in the canons. This testifies to the categoricalness of the Nicean definition (horos) concerning the time of celebrating Holy Pascha, that is, never "together with the Jews."
The very expression "to not celebrate Pascha together with the Jews," contrary to the unsubstantiated assertion of certain contemporary modernist theologians, does not signify the mode of celebrating, but has a purely temporal meaning. In addition, it is well-known that with Christians their own practice of celebrating Pascha was already fully formed by the 4th century (cf. Archimandrite Nikon Patrinakos in Syriodica V. Edit. du Centre orthodoxe, Chambesy-Geneve, 1981, p. 43).

[14] Eusebius, Life of Constantine, 3, 18—19.

[15] Zelinsky, "Constructive Principles of the Ancient Russian Calendar" (in Russian), p. 70.

[16] Prof. F. A. Predtechensky, Church Chronology and a Critical Review the Existing Rules for Determining Pascha (in Russian), Saint Petersburg, 1892, pp. 3—4.

[17] See Prof. Protopriest Liverij Voronov, "The Calendar Problem. Its Study in the Light of the Decision of the 1st Ecumenical Council on the Paschalia and the Search for a Path toward Cooperation in this Matter," Theologial Works (in Russian), 7. Moscow, 1971, p. 178; Zelinsky, "Constructive Principles of the Ancient Russian Calendar," p. 69.

[18] Zelinsky, ibid., p. 70.

[19] Ibid., p. 71.

[20] Voronov, op. cit., p. 83.

[21] Zelinsky, op. cit., p. 83.

[22] Prof. V. V. Bolotov, "Report," (in Russian) Minutes of the Sessions of the Commission on the Question of the Reform of the Calendar under the Auspices of the Russian Astronomical Society, 31 May 1899, Appendix 5, p. 40.

[23] See Priest D. A. Lebedev’s note 2 on p. 444 of Prof. V. V. Bolotov’s volume Lectures on the History of the Ancient Church (in Russian), Saint Petersburg, 1910.

[24] A. I. Georgievsky, On the Ecclesiastical Calendar (in Russian), edition of the Moscow Patriarchate, Moscow, 1948, p. 11.

[25] Voronov, op. cit., pp. 182—184.

[26] Ibid., p. 182; cf. Rev. Prof. Ene Braniste, "Le theme de la celebration commune de Paques", in Synodica, op. cit., pp. 23—24.

[27] Georgievsky, op. cit, p. 6.

[28] Bolotov, op. cit, p. 45.

[29] Ibid., p. 46.

[30] Ibid., p. 46.

[31] Ibid., p. 44.

[32] See Zelinsky, "Constructive Principles of the Ancient Russian Calendar," (in Russian) p. 74.

[33] Ene Braniste, op. cit., page 25.

[34] Saint John Chrysostom, Works (in Russian), v. I, bk. 2, Saint Petersburg, 1898, pp. 667-679.

[35] Cf. Priest Simeon Sokolov, Orthodox Paschalia (in Russian), Moscow, 1900, p. 5; Ludmila Perepiolkina, "Report," (in Russian) first National Symposium on Archeo-astronomy with International Participation (in Russian), 22—24 November 1988, Tolbukhin, Bulgaria (in print).

[36] Cit. in N. Idelson, History of the Calendar (in Russian), Leningrad, 1925, p. 79.

[37] Zelinsky, "Constructive Principles of the Ancient Russian Calendar," (in Russian) p. 86.

[38] Ibid., p. 85.

[39] Zelinsky, Sanctified time (in Russian), p. 236.

[40] Ibid., p. 236.

[41] Zelinsky, "Constructive Principles of the Ancient Russian Calendar," (in Russian) p. 106.

[42] Ibid., p. 107.

[43] Ibid., p. 90.

[44] Zelinsky, Sanctified Time (in Russian), p. 228.

[45] Bolotov, op. cit., p. 1.

[46] Voronov, op. cit., p. 192.

[47] Bolotov, op. cit., p. 47

[48] Zelinsky, "Constructive Principles of the Ancient Russian Calendar," (in Russian) p. 88.

[49] Church News (in Russian), published by the Synod of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, No. 15—16, 1924, p. 18.

[50] Cit. in Zellnsky "Constructive Principles of the Ancient Russian Calendar," (in Russian) p. 92.

[51] Archbishop (subsequently Metropolitan) Vitaly (Ustinov), Forward to the Canadian edith of A. N. Zelinsky’s book, Constructive Principles of the Ancient Russian Calendar (in Russian), Montreal, 1984, pp. 6—7.

[52] Ludmila Perepiolkina, "The Category of Time in Orthodox Church Tradition" (in Russian), Materials of the III International Scientific Church Conference, dedicated to the Millennium of the Baptism of Russia, Leningrad, 31.1—5.2. 1988 (in print).

[53] Prof. S. Troitsky, "Together We Shall Struggle with Danger," (in Russian) Journal of Moscow Pat riarchate, 2, 1950, p. 37, pp. 46—47.

[54] Cf. Troitsky, ibid., pp. 46-47.

[55] Church News (in Russian), Nos. 19 and 20, 1923.

[56] Church News (in Russian), Nos. 11 and 12, 1924.

[57] Church News (in Russian), Nos. 19 and 20, 1923.

[58] Voronov, op. cit., p. 176.

[59] Cf. Archbishop Averky, "The New-Calendarists without Peter’s Fast" (in Russian), in his book Contemporaneity in the Light of God’s Word (in Russian), v. I, Printshop of St. Job of Pochaev, Holy Trinity Monastery, Jordanville, NY, 1975, p. 181.

[60] "The Teaching of the Orthodox Church on Sacred Tradition and Her Attitude toward the New Style," (in Russian) cit. above, p. 38.

[61] Innocent, Archbishop of Peking, op. cit., p. 52.

[62] "Teaching of the Orthodox Church" (in Russian), p. 45.

[63] See Church News (in Russian) for the years indicated.

[64] "Sigilion of the Local Council of Constantinople in the year 1583," cit. in Church News (in Russian), Nos. 15 and 16, 1924, p. 18.

[65] According to the opinion of Metropolitan Vitaly (Ustinov), Chief Hierarch of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, the female "priesthood’ represents a full break with Sacred Tradition.

[66] "Teaching of the Orthodox Church," (in Russian) p. 42.

[67] Cf. ibid., pp. 44—45.

[68] Archbishop Innocent, op. cit., p. 51.

[69] Zelinsky, Sanctified Time (in Russian), p. 242.

[70] Ibid., p. 243.

[71] Archbishop Innocent, op. cit., p. 50.

[72] Prof. V. V. Bolotov, Minutes of the 8th Session of the Commission on the Question of the Reform of the Calendar (in Russian), 21 February 1900.

[73] V. S. Soloviev, "Three Conversations," (in Russian) Collected Works, v. X, Saint Petersburg, 1897—1900, p. 159.

[74] Cf. Ludmila Perepiolkina, "La Justification du bien en art," in l’Analyste, Montreal, hiver 1984—1985, p. 56.

[75] Cf. Ludmila Perepiolkina, "Clarte pour un temps d’Apocalypse," in France Catholique, Paris, 1987, N. 2120.

[76] In regard to the return to the icon in the West, Leonid Uspensky says: "It is noteworthy that precisely our modern and terrible world discovered the icon for itself", Leonid Uspensky On the Paths to Unity (in Russian). Paris, 1987, p. 35.

[77] L. Perepiolkina, "The Influence of the Division of the Churches on the Change of Chronology in the Western Ecumene," (in Russian), material of the International Conference dedicated to the Millennium of the Russian Orthodox Church, Joensuu and Heinävesi (New Valaam), 22—24 Sept 1988, finland (in print)