from archive of A. S. Ipatova
The candidate of historical sciences, the Voronezh state
The portrait is stored In archival assembly of the
St.-Petersburg branch of Institute of oriental studies of the
Russian Academy of Science gray-haired startsa, oblachennogo in church clothes, with an
acute sight of the light blue eyes which many have seen on the
century. Domestic sinologam the name of this person which
diligence had been incorporated bases of the richest sinologicheskih
collections of our country is well familiar and opportunities for
long-term and stable stay of the Russian orthodox mission in Beijing
in XIX century Its name - Paul Ivanovich Kamensky, with acceptance
monastic postriga named by Peter are created.
Mentions of it are frequent in the special research literature, in
particular when speech comes about profile eaoaeiaao1.
Even more often about it speak in connection with uneasy
collisions so-called " business of father Iakinfa " (N.J.Bichurina)
2. However and to this day circumstances of a life of this
scientist, the pastor and the missionary, its contribution to
becoming and development of domestic oriental studies are not to the
full revealed and opened by our scientists.
We Shall begin even that V.P.Vasilev, speaking about works Kamenskogo which
plenty after its death remains in manuscripts and a site them to
establish inconveniently, has as follows responded about their
author: " all the dear old man, irreproachable, but short-sighted "
Authors (among which and rather dear) a different sort of film
scripts and novels on a historical theme with careless ease
represent archimandrite Peter in an inattractive image of the born
and inveterate tale-bearer, the suppressor of all progressive and
advanced, embodied, on logic of their thinking, quite naturally and
naturally in a figure ieromonaha Eaeeioa4.
E.I.Kychanov who absolutely fairly has noted in due time has paid
attention To a phenomenon of archimandrite Peter: " Behind all
scientific activity Kamenskogo or there is an adverse
coincidence of circumstances, or any secret is covered. There was a
myth, that it knew the Chinese language insufficiently. But it is a
myth, and not only because Kamensky, as anybody, long veins in
China but also because it has left the Russian-Chinese dictionary and
phrase books in the scientific heritage. P.I.Kamenskogo's
mission has prepared the biggest number of the pupils capable after
returning from China to practical work with languages " 5. The Same
researcher has managed partly to distinguish in this phenomenon and
its drama party in which doubtless one seems to it, namely, that "
being contemporary N.J.Bichurina, it has come back ? from China when
Bichurin has already triumphally entered not only into Russian
science, but also in world sinologiju. Bichurin has to a certain
extent covered Kamenskogo, as well as two other
contemporaries - S.V.Lipovtsova and Z.F.Leontyevsky... " 6.
Organizing abilities Kamenskogo specified ieromonah Gury (Carps),
worked in structure of the twelfth spiritual mission (1840-1849): "
Mission did not bring expected advantage till Alexander
Blagoslovennogo's times (t. e. Alexander I. - About.) can be because
the staff was insufficient, and can be and consequently, whether
that in members of mission has raspolozhennost, ability to linguistics,
whether even is capable of something: it selected and sent to China
because no corrective measures popechitelnogo the heads operated!
Alexander Blagoslovennyj, on representation of the father of
archimandrite Peter, has increased staff, having specified students
and spiritual to select by all means in Petersburg and from higher
educational institutions with the certificate on excellent morals
and abilities " 7.
It is difficult to disagree With the above-stated judgement. On X
mission special hopes as disagreement and contentions between
members of previous mission of archimandrite Iakinfa have made
problematic the further existence of Orthodoxy within the limits of
Median empire have been assigned. In this connection sharply there
was a question on structure of mission and its chief. Not casually
in one of the letters then Minister for Foreign Affairs of columns
of K.V.nesselrode wrote to minister of spiritual affairs and
national education to prince
A.N.Golitsyn: " Essential inconvenience consist that the choice
on the people having full hunting to those and abilities and uniting
strict morals with toju a degree of scientific education
which would open it ways to the perfect achievement of the purpose
of high purpose of mission " not always fell. But in fact such
people " can justify really will of the government, and give
Chineses the present concept about a degree of formation, about
advantage of character of Russians " 8.
And in the Highest instruction addressed to archimandrite Peter,
signed in Tsarskoe Selo on July, 27th, 1818, it was spoken: " the
Government, selecting you the main chief of spiritual mission sent
to Beijing, wishes, that you have accepted this purpose as a new sign
on the excellent power of attorney and respect for your pure
Christian rules, strict morals, abilities and education. It expects
that you quite will justify its choice, and in opinion of people
sosedstvennogo support honour of a name
of Russian as cautious and mild your behaviour, both examples of a
life virtuous, and close impartial supervision of all members of new
mission, to you subordinated " 9.
The Choice of the government was as it is impossible for more
successful. Archimandrite Peter has appeared that person who managed
to revive and put on essentially new basis activity of the Russian
orthodox mission in China. And if the first 20 years of XIX century
in domestic sinologii can be named " bichurinskim a
stage " since 1821 on 1917 inclusive in activity of mission proceeds
" period Kamenskogo " as the missionary activity
which has received a high estimation of this period was vzlelejana its
works and cares. In this connection pertinently to give of a word
known Russian sinologa XIX century K.A. Skachkova which
wrote about archimandrite Peter, that " during ten years' stay in
Beijing, <it> did not cease to care together with the assistants
of suggestion disappeared from Orthodoxy of trues of belief Hristovoj and
measures of mildness, blessings, a kind example, diligence in svjashchennosluzhenii and in execution
spiritual treb has involved in our temples the
most part of those Albazintsev, lived in Beijing, which
families already more than centuries kosneli in idolatry " 10.
We Shall stop shortly on the basic marks of the biography of
archimandrite Peter, preceded its sending to Beijing in 1819 Was born
in 1765 in family nayuaiieea11. In 1787 has ended a theological
seminary in Nizhni Novgorod, where was trained in latin and ancient
greek languages (knew them in perfection), poetry, rhetoric,
philosophy, divinity, geography and mathematics. Then within three
years worked as the teacher in Balahninskom district school. In 1791
has acted in Imperial Moscow university in which studied logic,
mathematics, general history and the natural right. Later year has
been certain by the assistant to the supervisor in the
St.-Petersburg educational house. In February, 1793 under the decree
of the Most holy Pravitelstvujushchego the Synod has been
included in structure of VIII Russian orthodox mission of
archimandrite Sofronija (Gribovskogo) as the pupil of the
Chinese and Manchurian languages. Being in Beijing, besides work in
(the Chinese Board of foreign affairs), actively was engaged in
translational activity (basically from Manchurian language). To them
have been translated (in some cases there are begun translations and
are completed already later): " TSzychzhi tuntszjan ganmu " (dominsky the period), section "Bentszi" from
Magazine, vedennyj in Beijing on the occasion of
arrival from the Russian state of envoy Nikolay Gavrilovicha
Spafarija ", " the Description of affairs of Dzungaria ", " Falling
Minsk, and beginning Manzhurskoj, in China imperial
dynasties, or a life of traitor Lidzychina " and some other
During this period of the stay in Beijing P.I.Kamensky has born
impression that " Beijing for scientific missionaries is fine school,
paradise, and for ignoramuses muchitelnejshaja bondage " 13.
The Significant place in scientific heritage Kamenskogo of this
period is allocated to reviewing sinologicheskoj production of domestic
and foreign researchers. Are especially interesting its note,
devoted to works of known French missionary-jesuit Z.M.Amyo
(1718-1793.) " Chinese jesuit Amiota of a note, - it is readable in
one of its responses, - an essence a body which is not having and
attributes showers - at all eminence of its learning, tolikie works on
only an essence are vain, but also harmful. It... Did not explain,
but that already, so to say, in scientific light, almost and has
explained, on extreme without sovestiju absolutely to black out tried.
It wrote under a name kitajtsov, from their bosom left, takija fables about
which and China at all antiquity, never heard. Ezhestrochnyja
contradictions, are strong to prove this istinnu " 14.
P.I.Kamenskogo's Knowledge of the Chinese and Manchurian
languages, as well as other pupils of mission, at returning to
Russia have been highly certified urginskim vanom which had with them conversation
specially on this i?aaiao15. Then Irkutsk general-governor
I.B.Pestel assumed to leave it the translator in the department.
However the central government, lacking the qualified translators,
has defined it together with S.V.Lipovtsovym on April, 13th, 1809 in
staff of officials of the Asian department of Board of foreign
affairs. In 1816 it is made in a grade collegiate asessora and
erected in nobiliary advantage. Then P.I.Kamensky's by the Highest
nominal decree has been certain in structure popechitelnogo
committee of the Imperial philanthropic society and as its member
was trustee Galernogo of settlement. In 1818 has been selected on a
post of director of committee of the Russian Bible society.
Being on civil service, P.I.Kamensky continued to be engaged in
scientific activity actively. The big international resonance was
received with its idea connected with attempts of the edition pjatijazychnogo
(iaiu??o?nei-iiiaieunei-eeoaenei-Russian-latin) dictionary, the proof
of which first sheets has been let out in N.Grecha's printing house.
Despite of stated and to this day doubts in the done P.I.Kamenskim's
reality of practical work above drawing up of the such dictionary,
archival materials available in our disposal allow to approve, that
by the moment of sending to China it has thoroughly worked at the
conceived edition though has not had time to finish this grandiose
work up to eiioa16. The given circumstance specify also the numerous
reviews which have acted from abroad from the largest orientalists
of the Western Europe (Dzh. Barrow, l. Deginja,
?.-i. . Remjuza, baron a. . Silvestra de Sasi, C.Uilkinsa,
etc.). From domestic sinologov N.J.Bichurin has responded,
and is negative. Greater help in attempts of the edition of the
dictionary of P.I.Kamenskomu P.L.shilling rendered background Kanshtadt which has
managed specially for this purpose to obtain necessary monetary
Approximately in the same years of scientists-neiieiaii
translation of the book "Tajshan" which incomplete text has been
published in " Magazine of the ministry of national education " for
1821 a.18 In parallel it has been carried out taught in the
St.-Petersburg spiritual academy where read a rate on modern history
Evident display of a recognition of merits of P.I.Kamenskogo in
scientific sphere was its election in 1819 member-correspondent of
the St.-Petersburg Imperial academy of sciences under the category
of the literature and antiquities of the East. It also was a member
of the Free economic society, the Free society of fans of a science
and applied arts, the Parisian Asian society and the Copenhagen
society northern antikvariev.
P.I.Kamensky was the author of the project of that instruction
(with small additions Irkutsk general-governor N.I.Treskina) which
became a basis of activity of the Russian orthodox mission in China.
The main things among its items were the following: care of
preservation and augmentation of orthodox flock in China, correct
statement of educational employment and gathering of materials by
all without exception by members of mission on interesting Russian
society and the government to branches of knowledge, " preservation
in mission of the excellent order so dear in China ", accordingly
through it " sniskanie blagoraspolozhenija commanding grades
and authorized representatives " China-neiai the governments.
Most likely the given circumstance testifying to very deep and
all-round knowledge of business, and also personal qualities of the
composer of the instruction have allowed an occasion to its direct
heads to offer P.I.Kamenskomu to head new mission. However from this
abuse it has refused, having written to the official report
addressed to K.V.nesselrode, that " the Beijing service, rather to
personal and private kinds, is equaled with sluzhboju in bowels
of fatherland continued, as long and not changeable suffering, with
long uslazhdeniem lives. Any way to select
the worst, it is opposite to the nature, that is why and to go there
I am denied " 19.
Now it is difficult to explain those valid reasons, on which
P.I.Kamensky has refused to accept this high purpose, as well as the
circumstances which finally have induced it to change the initial
decision. Hardly they were especially material order on what some of
its biographers insist. But anyway, the choice took place in favour
of repeated, very uneasy and rather long service in China.
Considering, that the chief of mission the person of a ministry
should be indispensable, Paul Kamensky has selected a nunhood (to it
promoted as well that it was single), and postrig with a name Peter from
metropolitan St.-Petersburg Michael on May, 3rd, 1819 has accepted.
On May, 8th has been imposed in ierodiakona, then - ieromonaha, and on
May, 15th it is made in archimandrite. Then to it has been welcome
diamond napersnyj a cross.
Before departure of mission its members have received the Highest
audience. During reception archimandrite Peter has told, that will
ask on a feat of the help prelaying to it from the Lord. On what
Sovereign Alexander Pavlovich replied psalomski: " my Voice to the Lord vozzvah, and uslysha mja from mountain
Svoeja " also
has added: " it is frequent so I appealed to the Lord, and That
always listened to me " 20.
Members of mission have left St.-Petersburg on December, 28th,
1819, and the part from them has gone to say goodbye with native.
All together they have gathered already in Kazan and have arrived to
Irkutsk on February, 20th, 1820 where have been warmly and kindly
met then the general-governor of Siberia M.M.Speransky. On August,
31st, 1820 mission has crossed border of Russian empire, and on
December, 1st the same year has arrived to the Chinese capital. In a
way mission was accompanied the official with 8 classes of the Asian
department of Ministry for Foreign Affairs E.F. Timkovsky as its
police officer and group of the Siberian cossacks from 29 person led
by the officer E.I.Razgildeevym's 14 classes. In the order of
mission 10 covered vehicles, 6 odnokolok have been given, 85 camels,
150 horses and 28 bulls, the part from which has been presented
Extremely successful there was a selection of participants of
mission. Into it have entered: ieromonah Veniamin (Morachevich),
Daniel (Sivillov), prichetniki
N.I.Voznesensky and A.I.Sosnitsky, doctor I.P.Voitsekhovsky,
K.G.Crimean and Z.F.Leontyevsky. Exception was represented only
by two: ierodiakon Israel which, being is
deprived, most likely, those qualities of unselfishness and
self-sacrifice which archimandrite to the full possessed, student
V.K.Abramovich has received the extremely unflattering estimation of
the chief, and. However, soon both of them have returned to Russia.
It is interesting to note, that in studying of the Chinese and
Manchurian languages in this mission were engaged even prichetniki that
done not happen earlier. In activity of previous missions they
showed the main source of anxieties and contentions. " I mnogogreshnejshy
the novice, - wrote in the report to the Most holy Synod on April,
3rd, 1833 archimandrite Peter, - to correct this harm, have turned
them to works of studying mnogotrudnejshego the Chinese language,
Mission has got rid of them temptations, Christian morals and
physical health was preserved, and the Chinese government bad
behaviour, beznuzhnymi by dispatches has not been
concerned. A word: from such people who and perished, and others to
death always carried away, I have returned to Fatherland on true
useful " 22.
From the first steps of activity of new Russian orthodox mission
there was a problem of mutual relations with members of the previous
mission connected with trial of its affairs, rather started on
church and administrative part. It is enough to mention, that for 15
years of work of IX mission 23 persons have been turned into
Orthodoxy only. The responsibility for contentions and disorder of
mission Kamensky has completely assigned to
archimandrite Iakinfa (Bichurina) about which wrote: "
Archimandrite Iakinf of sharp mind, to much on true is capable, but
kind propensities, and even it seems shame and conscience, a trace
it is not visible. For it belief, fatherland, relationship, a duty
near, a life, death - mere words, for it one slado-no?anoey make
its pleasure " 23. And that has received a similar estimation also
from official Chinese authorities, Irkutsk general-governor
I.B.Pestelja, and also the direct heads. An outcome of "business"
well-known: guilty have been punished, itself Iakinf by the simple
monk has been banished to Valaam that has served as the reason of
irreconcilable enmity of the last to "offender" 24.
Dispute of archimandrite Peter and monk Iakinfa, mentioned in the
further area of personal attitudes and pererosshy in the sharp and intense
scientific polemic between them, proceeded during their all life,
yet has not consoled and the Lord the God has not reconciled their
Allmighty Uteshitel and Primiritel.
The Close acquaintance with mistakes and failures of the previous
missions has allowed archimandrite Peter to make the important
changes to system of the organization of the Russian orthodox
mission. It is necessary to recognize as a successful innovation
formation of Advice of mission from three person (archimandrite and
two ieromonaha). Now only advice defined
plans of educational employment and current duties of everyone
without exception of a member of mission, knew the financial and
economic party, defined a degree of awards for differed and a
measure of punishments for at fault, conducted the corresponding
reporting and correspondence, developed the general line of conduct
concerning tsinskih officials and local population
and many other things. Functions of the archimandrite have been
shown up to a role of " the senior priest " as whom it and was
called in order to prevent misunderstanding in the Chinese official
papers. Though its authority and knowledge of all circumstances of a
life of China have made its real, instead of the formal chief of
The Most steadfast attention in activity X of the Russian
orthodox mission was given the sermon of christianity among again
christened albazintsev which general number in 1831
made 94 persons. About this party of the activity archimandrite
Peter wrote as follows: " Now has again lit up their good fortune
Stiffened in jazychestve, these deadmen, owing to
piety of Great Russian Sovereigns, paki in bowels of Sacred Church are
warmed. Nowadays, among their dwellings, on a place of the become
empty monastery of church, again will erect the house Divine and it
is supplied nuzhnoju by utensils, not poverty, but
riches of showing, Great our Tsars proving piety. Nowadays between
them the most capable are installed not only pious, but also to the
sermon of word Bozhija spiritual, on clear by it the
Chinese language Christian posts explaining " 25. Force of word
sermons of archimandrite Peter have involved in our Church of
several Manchurian officials which have kept the kindest memory of
the pastor found by them. However, the prays and cares father Peter
did not leave them and after the homecoming.
About a state of affairs of mission archimandrite Peter (Kamensky) wrote in
the message to the Most holy Synod from February, 2nd, 1823 as
follows: " Our mission is in the most blossoming condition, all and
everyone separately with indefatigability practise in the ordered
employment. The started structures are corrected. Uspenskaja the
monastery is inside renewed and outside of is strongly arranged, at
it for the appeal albazintsev from idolatry the school is
opened, from the houses sold by previous archimandrite two are back
bought. From diligent employment spiritual in the Chinese language
it is possible by means of Bozhiej to hope, that nuzhnejshie places
Svjashchennosluzhenija will be soon
translated on the Chinese language, without what circulation albazintsev in
Church vainly. Service Bozhija sends in both monasteries, and albazintsy it is
enough with us have already approached acquaintance, and in belief
revival is expected. Trained children in due course can be the best
of the fathers teachers. Now from our party, on their mature
perversity, it is required patiences much. For spiritual the
knowledge of the Chinese language is necessary necessary " 26.
The Account of local features has caused entering from blessing
the Most holy Synod of some changes of not basic character in
departure of an orthodox ceremony, namely in Sacrament of a
christening (water the head devoted poured only), refusal of an
interdiction on consumption of some kinds of foodstuff during a post
(milk and oil) excepting chetyredesjatnitsu. The external shape
of the priest has changed: an obligatory condition became shaving a
head and a beard, carrying in a daily life Chinese ieaouy27. And,
the main thing, in mission of archimandrite Peter the liturgy began
to be made in the Chinese language - in Uspenskom a temple by directly it, and
a temple in Sunday and holidays ieromonahom Veniamin (Morachevichem).
Having significant monetary n?aanoaaie28, archimandrite Peter
has founded at Uspenskom a monastery in October, 1825
school for training children albazintsev (in quantity 15 person) to
the Russian and oa?eiaii-slavic letter, arithmetics and church
singing. The iconostasis which has been updated in 1824 and is sent
from Russia to Beijing together with money for the maintenance of
mission, has been placed in Uspenskoj churches. Some icons for it,
under the certificate of police officer of mission of
E.F.Timkovskogo, have been written by the Chinese artists in " their
national taste ". The temple again repaired, has been consecrated on
November, 10th, 1827 At it have been built keli the chief of
mission and its other members.
Has been restored Sretensky a temple, and its dome is
Under E.F.Timkovskogo's petition the temple was decorated with an
iconostasis, plashchanitseju and four pictures on
plots from the Scriptus, executed by the professor of the
St.-Petersburg academy of arts A.I.Ivanov (1775-1848 29. Since the
tenth mission of service in this temple began to be spent on a
regular basis. The Russian missionary cemetery which is settled down
outside city has been resulted in the order. And, at last, have been
redeemed was in zaklade at home and sites of the ground,
was by the property of the Russian orthodox mission.
The Big place in activity of archimandrite Peter was allocated to
updating of library assembly of our mission in Beijing which basis it
has put in pawn still in 1795 a.30 During this period the hard work
on purchase and copying of books of various (mainly theological)
maintenance was conducted. Doublet copies of many of them
subsequently have been forwarded to Russia. " Any sort Christian
theological, in the Chinese language of books, on favour Roman veropropovednikov I
written off, and a part printed, am available a full collection. The
sacred Bible as is written off by me in the Chinese language 2
copies and on Manchurian 2 from which on one are left in local our
library and on one I am lucky enough to send to the Most holy Synod
for the use on the Imperial Bible society " 31, - so archimandrite
Peter wrote about this party of the activity.
Among valuable updatings this library it is necessary to consider
works of members of mission. Considering lack of the Christian
literature in the Chinese and Manchurian languages (in fact many
editions of Catholic missionaries became by then raritetnymi)
members of mission led by archimandrite have actively borrowed in
translational activity. First of all it, certainly, needs to be
carried to ieromonahu to Daniel (Sivillovu) by
which diligence have been translated into the Chinese language
morning and evening prays; Zertsalo confessions of belief of
prelate Dimitrija Rostov; prays behind a liturgy, laymen readable;
sacred Gennady of the patriarch.
The book of known French philosopher N.Malbransha " the
Indisputable truth or competition of Christians with pagans " which
copy it has received in gift in Irkutsk from M.M.Speransky's column
in 1820 This book has received Special attention of archimandrite
Peter was translated to it on Manchurian and Russian languages in
addition to already existed Chinese translation under the title "
shi and ". On
a way home archimandrite Peter translated the eeoaenei-Manchurian
phraseological dictionary " TSinven djanjao " (1793), Which it has finished
on December, 31st, 1831, being already in E?eoonea32. Probably,
during same time it had been completed translation and final redaktura the
Chinese and Manchurian parts of the trilingual dictionary " Sanhe bjanlan " above
which it worked together with a Century Novoselovym which has translated
Mongolian ?anoe33. Most likely during P.I.Kamenskim's second
"Beijing" period " the Big Russian-Chinese dictionary " in three
volumes with samples of translation into the Chinese language of
separate phrases mainly theological oa?aeoa?a34 has been prepared
Among works of other members of mission it is necessary to name
also translation of the three first parts " Histories of the state
Russian " N.M.Karamzina executed by Z.F.Leontevskim35.
During X missions archimandrite Peter on own means actively
bought books in the Chinese, Manchurian and Mongolian languages over
which hundred copies it subsequently has presented in the most
various establishments of Russia (the St.-Petersburg spiritual
academy, the Asian department the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the
St.-Petersburg public library, the Moscow university, a theological
seminary and a grammar school of Irkutsk, nerchinskoe school mongol-neiai
language, etc.). Only in October, 1825 it has sent to the Most holy
Synod the whole box of books of the Old testament in the Chinese
The Important sphere of activity of mission, as well as at
previous it, still had a problem of an establishment of correct and
normal attitudes with tsinskimi authorities. A considerable
role in it the authority and personal charm of the archimandrite
have played. Greater popularity of mission self-denying work of
doctor I.P.Voitsekhovsky during epidemic of a plague which raged in
Beijing per 1820-1821, and also has given successful treatment of one
by it of relatives bogdyhana. On the honourable board,
brought to the doctor in this case on November, 14th, 1829, it has
been written: " the Tub the Dignity mjaoshu " 36. It is necessary to note
also and regular, competently, but at the same time it is strict and
rigidly organized (because of carelessness of local pupils) teaching
activity ieromonaha Veniamin (Morachevicha) at
school of Russian at Lifanjuane.
Other essential problem mutual relations with representatives of
other Christian faiths and the awards had the representation in
Beijing continued to remain. Members of mission had the kindest
attitudes with last representatives of Catholic mission. As bishop
from N.I.Voznesenskogo's letter to archpriest of the Peter and Paul
cathedral of F.S.Pesotskomu, after death on October, 2nd, 1826 supriora to
southern cathedral board Rebejry nankinsky. Pereira has presented its our
mission aeaeeioaeo37. To the big interest of Catholic missionaries
in friendly contacts to members of our mission testify also
Z.F.Leontyevsky and ieromonah Veniamin (Morachevich). And
I.P.Kovalevsky who has arrived in structure of already XI Russian
orthodox mission so has responded about a meeting with the
Portuguese cleric on December, 4th 1830 g.: " It is impossible to describe
pleasure with koeju us has met this respectable starets (t. e.
- About.), Last from the European missionaries in Beijing, gonimyj zloschastnoju sudboju among
artful Chineses. Honour to members of Russian mission which did not
leave its visitings, was supported with a life and spirit Christian
veropropovednika, surrounded by envious
pagans! " 38.
Archimandrite Peter has as follows depicted position of Catholic
mission in China in the second term of the there stay in one of
reports addressed to the iaa?-public prosecutor of the Most holy
Synod of prince P.S.Meshcherskogo: " the Roman missionary work in
all China is destroyed. Now through illness before recover one
bishop Piret (t is left. e. K.P. Pereira. - About.). Their churches
collapse, and extensive manors rasprodany from which and we from the
permission of the local government, for state incomes have bought
two vegetable kitchen gardens and a little lavok, all tsenoju about ten
pood of silver. To sew missions hour from an hour local it is
aggravated the governments political blagoraspolozhenie. All our needs and
requests are satisfied rather favourably " 39.
Similar circumstances have allowed the Russian government to
estimate highly activity X of mission after its returning from China
on September, 3rd, 1831 All remained in structure of mission have
received a positive estimation of the chief and after homecoming
were properly nagrazhdeny and were promoted on
service. Archimandrite Peter for besporochnuju and self-denying service
as chief X of the Russian orthodox mission in China was nagrazhden
Sacred Anna's award of 1-st degree (the first among ecclesiastics of
a similar dignity). It has received Sacred Vladimir's award of 3-rd
degree still being in structure of mission. It designated on
archiepiscopal faculty to the Astrakhan province. However it has
preferred to retire in Feodorovskuju a monastery Gorodtsa (the
Nizhniy Novgorod province, district Balahninsky) where under the
legend Grand duke Alexander Jaroslavich Nevsky after returning from
the trip to Golden Horde to Berk-khan has died, having accepted a
monastic vow under Alex's name on November, 14th 1263 a.40 Last
years P.I.Kamensky's lives has lead in the continuous and active
cares connected with restoration of this monastery; it spent a
significant part of pension and property for realization of the
plan, including presented to it emperor Nikolay I a diamond ring.
As if to China every year in dnevnikovyh records Kamenskogo the
volume of data on it is steadily reduced. The general estimation of
the years lead by it there more likely negative. " About China! - it
wrote. - you are a lot of at me have carried away invaluable time.
27-th years it is lead above mechanical only your employment, but
consoles one only that this is lost on service; if not it any tears
a shred of loss to mourn was not possible. The Chinese these
employment, and at that aaiii-night, not only do not multiply
knowledge, and before got chrez long duration deprive " 41.
Though and it is possible to concern to the given judgement of
archimandrite Peter differently. In fact in it one very important
idea that studying of history and culture of the country with such
powerful and old tradition essentially increased propaedeutics "
kitaisticheskih studies " (included the
bare data in all areas of knowledge) which studying could be
stretched for some years of the most laborious and persistent work
is guessed. And that is why, by the way, in the environment of
missionaries there was a representation about the European
scientists never lived in China, as about " empty drums ", which "
Perhaps, last time steadfast attention Kamenskogo to China will be involved
with the advent of in the Petersburg newspapers of the information
on the beginning of the first "opium" war (1840-1842) which chances
in it it estimated is lowest. " From rzhanija northern horse, legions of the
Chinese armies run up. The lazy nation does not own China. The
Chinese speaks: who the priest so for us batka - only would not stir to our
customs. It speaks: we on experience saw, as our natural sovereigns
operated not is better, as well as alien " 42.
But such mentions in it zapiskah are very rare. Cleanly
terrestrial borrows a little and excites it. Archimandrite Peter
already completely entrusts itself to with Whom the inevitable and
fast meeting is necessary to it. In fact there, where the life comes
to an end, not necessarily there comes death. " And otret the God any
tear from their eyes, and death will not be already; neither crying,
nor a cry, illnesses any more will not be, for former has passed "
4). In consciousness of this idea the orthodox pastor of China has
found the eternal calm on May, 17th, 1845.
1 See, for example: Vahtin B.B., Gurevich I.S., Krol J.L., etc.
the Catalogue of fund Chinese ksilografov Institute of oriental
the USSR., 1973.
1-3.; Volkova M.P.description of Manchurian
manuscripts of Institute of people of Asia AN the USSR., 1965;
Manchurian manuscripts and ksilografy the State public library of
a name of M.E.saltykova: the Regular catalogue / Sost. K.S.Jahontov. SPb.,
1991; the Chinese manuscripts and ksilografy Public library: the Regular
catalogue / Sost. K.S.Jahontov. SPb., 1993; JAhontov
K.S.Chinese and Manchurian books in Irkutsk. SPb., 1994.
2 is more detailed sm.: GIALO, f. 19, op. 413, a unit hr. 120, 670 l.
3 Materials for history of the Russian spiritual mission in
Beijing / Under red.
N.I.Veselovskogo. SPb., 1905. Vyp. 1. With. 48.
4 it is especially evident this point of view it is displayed
in one of variants of the film script of P.E.Skachkova " Iakinf Bichurin - the
founder of Russian kitaevedenija " (Archive of
orientalists of SPb. FIV the Russian Academy of Science, f.
130, op. 1,
a unit hr.
5 History of domestic oriental studies up to the middle of XIX
century., 1990. With. 270.
6 In the same place.
On: Mozharovsky And. To history of our
spiritual mission in China (archimandrite Peter Kamensky) //
Russian archive., 1886. № 7. With. 412.
op. 104, a
714, l. 2
op. 99, a
10 Jumps K.A. Descendants albazintsev in
Beijing // Russian art leaf. 1859. № 2. On January 10. With. 9.
11 In different sources independent from each other the
inconsistent data concerning the biography of P.I.Kamenskogo are
resulted frequently. So, in the necrologue placed in " Magazine of
the ministry of national education " for 1845, year of a birth of
Paul Ivanovicha is specified 1773 (XLVI. № 6. June. Otd. VII: News
and a mix.
With. 46). The Track record of archimandrite Peter carries this
date to 1770 (RGIA,
op. 99, a
12 Almost all translations and P.I.Kamenskogo's works have
remained in manuscripts. Exception make only: " About the Chinese
plant zhen-oaiu, with figure of this " ("
Works of the Free economic society " for 1815 T. 65. With.
158-162), " magazine, vedennyj in Beijing on the occasion of
arrival from the Russian state of envoy Nikolay Gavrilovicha
Spafarija " (" the Siberian bulletin " for 1823 CH. 3. With.
29-100) and " a note about albazintsah " (are published in Beijing
13 Archive of orientalists of SPb. FIV the Russian Academy of Science, f.
42, op. 1,
a unit hr.
1, l. 286.
F-XVII, a unit hr. 24/3, l. 300.
15 Travel of archimandrite Sofronija Gribovskogo from Beijing up
to Kyakhta in 1808 // the Siberian bulletin. SPb., 1823. CH. 1.
16 Archive of orientalists of SPb. FIV the Russian Academy of Science,
op. 9, a
unit hr. 9;
OR and RK
whale. It is new. Sulfurs., a unit hr. 122.
17 More in detail pjatijazychnogo the dictionary it is
possible to get acquainted with circumstances of the edition on
materials of fund № 56 Archives of orientalists of SPb. FIV the Russian
Academy of Science (a unit hr. 61-81). From here we learn, that
for a basis of the dictionary of P.I.Kamensky has taken the
dictionary published in board Tsjanluna.
18 Magazine of the ministry of national education. 1821. № 9.
op. 99, a
877, l. 39.
20 Mozharovsky A.F. To history... With. 407.
21 Brief history of Russian Orthodox Mission in China, made on
the occasion of the two hundred year's anniversary which has
executed in 1913 of its existence. Beijing, 1916. With. 95.
op. 99, a
23 In the same place. L. 151.
24 it is interesting to note that circumstance, that under the
decree of the Most holy Synod from June, 30th, 1827, being on
Valaam, already after court above it, father Iakinf received 1200
rbl. of the annual sums and still specially 300 rbl. annually on
scientific employment, that will not be coordinated at all with
the stated number of the Soviet researchers the assumption that
that was exposed to prosecutions from church authorities as the
freethinker (RGIA, f. 796, op. 99, ? 877, l.
On: Chinese Blagovestnik. 1685-1935: the
Anniversary collection devoted
To the 250 anniversary from the date of the basis of the
Russian orthodox mission in China. Beijing, 1935. With. 104.
op. 99, ?
27 about this party of the activity in the report members of
Advice of mission Here is how wrote to the Most holy Synod from
July, 1st, 1824 archimandrite Peter, ieromonahi Veniamin and Daniel,
collegiate asessor I.P.Voitsekhovsky: " During
four-year-old stay of spiritual mission in Beijing, extreme
necessities, owing to distinction of a climate and customs of
China with our domestic, to deviation from some ceremonies and
rules svjatyja nasheja were given to Church as rather
novoprizyvaemyh children Hristovyh, and
the members of mission. And:
1a. The foreigner in China is a rarity and a wonder. And
consequently where it would not seem in the attire, will serve
everywhere as a show to people and the sample of the barbarian.
Therefore... Have found it is necessary necessary, in order to
prevent those obstacles, to trim heads and beards and, leaving
from a court yard to put on the Chinese dress.
2a. <Albazintsy refuse to nake at a
christening a body>. Therefore yes not prepjatie will
rely blagovestiju Hristovu,
necessary is recognized to make this sacrament chrez vozlivanie only
on the chapter kreshchajushchegosja sacred water.
3a. nepostojannejshy a climate in northern
parts of China; different properties proizrasteny onago and waters
with our domestic were not malovazhnoju prichinoju to a
relaxation of health, almost all members of mission. Moreover lack
of fast things as that: fishes, mushrooms, dry vegetables, to
kvass and that similar which at us eat during posts, did
preservation of these for health absolutely wearisome. And
consequently also not smaller necessity has forced, having
excluded chetyredesjatnitsu, in all other posts
to resolve on oil and milk " (RGIA, f. 796, op. 99, № 877, l.
28 Vysochajshe the approved instruction
from the August, 4th, 1818, confirmed by instructions 1839 and
1847, has increased the sum which is released on the salary and
the maintenance of mission, with 6500 up to 16 250 rbl. a year,
having established new clauses of charges, namely: on payment of
teachers of the Chinese, Manchurian and Mongolian languages,
purchase of books, etc. (Kjuner N.V.new history of the
countries of the Far East. CH. 2: the Review of the relations of
China with the European powers from XVI century till 1842. Vyp. 3: the
Relations with Russia. Vladivostok, 1910. With. 80).
29 General representation about structures of mission can be
received on S.I.Tcherepanov's sketches - the commander of group of
the cossacks accompanied XI mission on a way to Beijing. Copies of
these sketches are stored in funds M.V. Ladyzhensky (the Museum of
anthropology and ethnography it. Peter Velikogo) and
Z.F.Leontyevsky (OR and RK RNB).
Karmanovskaja I.L.treasure of the
Russian spiritual mission in Beijing // Problems of the Far East.
1990. № 5. With. 195.
op. 99, №
877, l. 299
32 Archive of orientalists of SPb. FIV the Russian Academy of Science, f.
24, op. 1,
a unit hr.
33 Now the site of the given manuscript is not revealed. A
mention of it sm.: Archive of orientalists. A unit
hr. 15, l.
In the same place, a unit hr. 1-3.
RK RNB, f. Dorn, a unit
36 " the Fine treatment, similar the Tub to the Dignity ", t.
e. To the known doctor of ancient China (P.E.sketch's Jumps ?
Peacemakers of Century Materials for history of the Beijing
spiritual mission // the Orthodox interlocutor. Kazan, 1888.
September. With. 118-119.
NPB, f. 100, op. 2, a unit
op. 99, №
40 From Feodorovskogo Gorodetsky's description of a monastery.
SPb., 1872. With. 12.
41 Archive of orientalists..., a unit hr. 14, l. 110
42 In the same place, a unit hr. 15, l. 41.
The List of reductions
the State historical archive of Leningrad region
the Russian Academy of Science - the St.-Petersburg branch of
Institute of oriental studies of the Russian academy of sciences
the Russian state historical archive
RK RNB - the
Department of manuscripts and hand-written books of the Russian