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About him:

From " the Bibliological dictionary "
Priest Alexander Me

(Men has finished work above the text to 1985; the dictionary op. In three volumes fund Me (SPb., 2002))

To the file Me

ALEKSY (Alexander Nikolaevich Vinogradov), ierom. (1845-1919), rus.pravosl. The missionary, the archeologist, the historian of art, the expert on history *ia?aaiaia Bibles. A sort. In Tver lips., in family of villages. The priest. Has ended SPb. DS (1865). The iae-plenty time was engaged in SPb. YES, and then has passed in Yaroslavl Demidovsky juridich. The liceum, to-?ue has ended in 1878 with a rank of the candidate juridich. Sciences. Within study was employee Rus. arheologich. Societies, studied tserk. Monuments Tver, Novgorod, etc. dioceses, and also questions of ethnography. In 1877 it is selected by employee Rus. geogr. Societies. In 1878-81 was listener Peterb. arheologich. Ei-that. Taught ikonografiju in Yaroslavl DS, worked at military-district court, consisted in zemskom a home guard. In 1881 has accepted a nunhood and has been imposed in ieromonahi. The same year by definition Svjat. Synod A has been appointed in the Beijing spiritual mission. Was in China up to 1888 where studied local languages and culture, participated in translation pravosl. bogosluzh. Books on a whale. Language. In 1884 it is selected by the correspondent of the Imperial society of encouragement of artists. After returning from Beijing has entered into number of brotherhood kievo-ia?a?neie laurels. To this period concern gl. Printed works. In 1889 it is selected by the honorary member of the Academy of arts. With 1909 was on rest in deserts Optinoj.

The Person of versatile knowledge, talents and the most extensive erudition, has brought the big contribution to studying history of bible translations. In 1889-91 in s.-iaoa?ao?aa there was its work " History of the aiaeeenei-American Bible " (in 3 t.). It represents the most detailed directory on rus. A language devoted to this theme. Its maintenance is much wider than the title. In the book it is given not only history of translations Pisanija on English language, but also history *?oeiienae, interpretation, *iauanoa bible and editions zap. tserk. The documents, concerning Bibles. The set of help tables is enclosed to the book and bibliogr. Indexes. In addition with the author the ni?aai?ii-comparative index for svjashch has been published special ". Books, chapters and verses to editions of the Bible " (spets. The appendix to 3-io t. " Histories of the aiaeeenei-American Bible "). Other extensive research - " History of the Bible in the East " (o.1, aui.1-2, SPb., 1889-95) - it is devoted to translations and distribution of the Word Divine among vost. People. The monography has missionary character and consequently a lot of place gives customs, beliefs, philosophy and politich. To the device of the countries of Southeast Asia.

u Drevnepatriarhalnye dynasties of tsars in assiro-aaaeeiiee and Persia, China, at Jews and mohammedans, SPb., 1895; Cirriculum vitae, history anglo-aia?. Bibles, kn. 1, ch. 2, SPb., 1890 (appendix).

l Unique work about is neopublikov. Item of the orientalist akad. N.I.Konrada " Sinolog in Optinoj " (sm.: P and in l about in and ch N.A., deserts Optina. Why there went great?, prometej, t. 12, 1980).


The candidate of ethnographic sciences, a member of the Russian Geographical society


Zabvennye pages of the biography of the scientist-eiiea

The Historical bulletin, ? 7, 2000 (a site of the Voronezh diocese)

One of outstanding sinologov the Russian spiritual mission in Beijing hieromonk Alex (Alexander Nikolaevich Vinogradov) is a unique figure on the scientific interests of Russian science. At the same time the hard destiny full of tragic element ieromonaha Alex promoted full oblivion of its scientific works still during lifetime of. In one of nowadays published encyclopedias, neither in biographic directories there are no data or about ieromonahe Alexs, about it ?aaioao1.

Brief data on it contain only in work most ieromonaha Alex " History of the aiaeeenei-American Bible " 2 about which it will be told below, and in clause of academician N.I.Konrada " Sinolog from desert Optinoj " 3, and also in the materials enclosed by it ieromonaha Alex (Vinogradova). A folder with these documents making personal archive of the academician, has rescueed during Great Domestic war known Petersburg issledovatelnitsa histories and cultures of Japan, the philologist and linguist O.P.Petrova4. Other data about ieromonahe Alexs, allowing to reconstruct a picture of its vital and creative way, are in different archives.

A.N.Vinogradov was born on November, 5th, 1845 in with. CHamerovo district Vesegonskogo of the Tver province in family of the priest. In 1865 has successfully ended the St.-Petersburg theological seminary in which excellent studied. Upon termination of seminary has been left there as the assistant to the observer ikono - grafii. In 1867 has acted in the St.-Petersburg spiritual academy, but actually in it did not study, as has passed in the Yaroslavl theological seminary the teacher of painting and drawing. Here it had been developed a rate of church archeology which has not met corresponding understanding and approval from local svjashchennonachalija. In 1871 A.N.Vinogradov has ended Demidovsky legal liceum in Yaroslavl with a degree of the candidate legal iaoe5. Per 1875-1876 worked aoaeoi?ii6 in the fifth Kiev Grenadierial a shelf, whence has soon left, as already then at it interest to scientific employment by archeology, ikonografiej, was showed by paleography and ethnography. 

Per 1876-1880 A.N.Vinogradov has acted as the scientist-specialist in Russian philology of a wide structure. For first clause " About wooden ancient temples of district Vesegonskogo and the some people at them sights, also barrows and embankments on district Vesegonskomu of the Tver province " 7 it has received a rank of a member-employee of the Imperial Russian Archeologic society (further IRAO) 8. At the same time it has published also the first work on ikono-a?aoee - " the Comparative description and a brief explanation of icon Prisnodevy of the Virgin " neopalimaja Kupina " " 9 (in other edition - " Experience of the comparative description and an explanation of some symbolical icons of old russian art ") in which has given the careful description of eight icons of assembly of the Academy of arts in St.-Petersburg in them ikonograficheskom and symbolical comparison to icon Prisnodevy of the Virgin " neopalimaja Kupina ". In 1879 There was its one more work on ikonografii - " " the Genealogical tree " on monuments Christian ikonografii " 10 - a result of studying of lists of a temple of sacred prophet Ilii in Yaroslavl. In 1878 A.N.Vinogradov has got acquainted with a hand-written collection of private museum assembly of a princely manor in with. Bologoe and by results of the work done by it has let out the unique research of a similar structure - " the Paleographic collection of prince P.A.Putjatina " 11. drew A.N.Vinogradova's attention and ethnography. For the hand-written collection of Russian and Karelian songs of district Vesegonskogo of the Tver province, containing 60 songs, in 1877 it has been selected by a member Imperial Russian Geographical iauanoaa12. Scientific employment of this period of A.N.Vinogradov combined with study in Archeologic institute (1876-1880). By this time it has formulated the scientific credo: " The archeology for me ? is inconceivable without history of art, religion, the literature, customs and customs not one people of Russian, but in communication and comparison with kulturoju and a civilization of other people " 13.

A.N.Vinogradov - one of the first Russian scientists who have supported of native olden time. Its offers on rescue of Russian wooden temples which destruction - " sad loss for a science and transient " 14, sound actually and now. It has devoted this problem the special work " Monuments of wooden church architecture in dioceses of Novgorod, Tver, Yaroslavl, Irkutsk and Krasnoyarsk XVII and XVIII centuries " 15 (with the appendix of 36 tables and the drawings executed by it personally). It has suggested to create a collection of kinds, plans, pictures, drawings of wooden temples, has written the manual for preparation of restorers, intended to organize public lectures, to draw to the given problem attention of the public. However in this A.N.Vinogradov support has not received.

Per 1879-1880 A.N.Vinogradov has got acquainted with works on Chinese and Iranian uranografii; result was the decision to borrow orientalistikoj (oriental studies), first of all for understanding " cultural development of Russian people in connection with east " 16.

A.N.Vinogradovu and public work was Not alien. During ?onnei-turkish war 1877-1878 it was the secretary of a society of the Red Cross and participated in creation and preparation of numbers of magazines " Bulletin of the national help " and "Russia". Per 1879 A.N.Vinogradov has transferred the first attack of heavy illness which will accompany with it during all subsequent life.

In May, 1880 Alexander Vinogradov has accepted a nunhood with a name Alex then took place it rukopolozhenie in ieromonahi then it has gone in structure of the Russian orthodox mission in Iaeei17 where has arrived per 1881 

Within two years by means of orthodox Chineses, translators and pupils of mission it studied the Chinese language and has achieved its such knowledge, that accepted the most active participation (under a name And shen-ooei) in translation of orthodox oa?eiaii-service books into the Chinese language. For these merits the Most holy Synod in 1884 prepodal to it blessing also has defined ieromonaha Alex the senior person after the chief of mission.

The First period of stay in capital of China (1881-1887) is the most fruitful for ieromonaha Alex and by way of scientific work. It had been collected a greater collection of Buddhist images, sculptures, manuscripts, books, subjects of art. After returning to Petersburg it has presented the Imperial Academy of arts a part of the collection, including figures, tables and a picture album with kinds of Beijing, for what ranks honourable free iauieea18 have been awarded.

In 1886 hieromonk Alex has published in " the Orthodox interlocutor " the first sinologicheskuju work - " Works of the western Christian missions in China " (other name of the work which have left as separate edition - " the Historical sketch of the western Christian missions in China "). Its purpose - preparation of Russian missionaries in view of experience Catholic veropropovednikov in China. In opinion of the author, the missionary to be successful in the high service, should know in perfection colloquial and literary Chinese language (including dialects) to be expert in the European languages, and also in manchurian, Mongolian and Tibetan. hieromonk Alex gave special attention ieroglifike, being surprised " survivability of the Chinese language ".

In 1887, having torn the forces unreasonable work, hieromonk Alex has come back to Russia, in kievo-ia?a?neo? to Laurels. Possibly, it quickly managed to be restored physically: being travel in Urge (Ulan Bator), it drew pictures for local Russian consulate, in Siberia collected data on church wooden architecture. Per 1888 it has arrived to Kiev, but here there were no materials necessary for its work, therefore it has addressed for the help to metropolitan Kiev and to Galitskomu Platon (Gorodetsky) who went to Petersburg. The lord has enlisted it in the retinue, and hieromonk Alex has lodged in November, 1888 on farmstead kievo-ia?a?neie Laurels on 15-th line of island Vasilevskogo.

Per 1888-1895 it has published the largest vostokovedcheskie researches among which the special place borrows the missionary report " History of the Bible in the East " (volume I) - present sinologicheskaja the encyclopedia which hieromonk Alex has published on own means. This volume consists of two separate parts connected by the general subject line - studying of China. The first part - " the Introduction to history of the Bible in the East " - is devoted to such questions, as a geographical position and eeoeei-administrative division of the countries of the Far East, their attitude with the European countries and America; in work the periodic scientific and missionary editions concerning given region are resulted. In this research works known western and Russian kitaistov, translations of east religious-philosophical literature into the European languages, the basic dogmas of people of the East, history of activity of Catholic awards and their concrete representatives in this part of globe are considered. The big place is given Russian orientalistike and to missionary work, and also comparison of types of cultures in the East and the West, including the theory of the right. The author lifts very much a complicated question about the attitude of Church to not Christian literature.

In the second part which represents actually missionary report under the name " History of the Bible in the East ", it is told about Jews in the East in general and in China in particular, about nestorianah and penetration nestorianstva to China, about Moslem and the Chinese moslems, the Buddhism and its basic schools, daosizme and daosskih sects, konfutsianstve and influence konfutsianstva for a life of China. Each of branches of the report, consisting of hundreds pages of excellent funded (equipped) text and the appendices containing translations of sources or a dictionary (lexicographic) material, settles down on sections and paragraphs. Such structure of product, despite of its enormous volume (1194 with.), Gives harmony to a stated material. Speaking about various yoeei-philosophical and religious doctrines, characteristic for China, hieromonk Alex has created a many-sided panorama of public and state life CHzhungo (the Median state). It all interests: family and civil law, position of the woman, graduation examinations, awards, punishments, the literature, architecture, etc. Is not present, perhaps, any product - from "TSjuanshiven" (" the Moral encyclopedia ") up to "Sjaotszina" (" the Book about synovem piety "), - which it would not review most carefully. Besides in the book tables with schemes of a calendar, sacrifices by the certain holidays, trigramm and geksogramm from "Itszina" (" Books of changes "), konfutsianskogo doctrines under the book "Dasjue" (" the Great doctrine ") have been placed.

Intended to the edition in 1889 the first volume " Histories of the Bible in the East " because of financial complexities could leave a press only in 1895 

To difficulties of the material order were added also technical - tipolitografija Aeaenaia?i-Neva Laurels could not reproduce the necessary drawings and figures. References behind the help to academician A.F.Bychkovu and in an imperial Academy of arts have not given the necessary result, therefore ieromonahu Alex had to spend additional time and means for realization of the plans.

To work " History of the Bible in the East ", phenomenal on volume and saturations an actual material, adjoin the separate works named ieromonahom by Alex by appendices.

It " the Chinese library and scientific works of members of Imperial Russian spiritual and diplomatic mission in a Beijing or the aye-jing (in China) " - the collection of clauses on history of Russian kitaevedenija, to the Chinese language, music, and also separate translations and the catalogue of books, many of which have been irrevocably lost during revolt ihetuanej 1900 in Beijing. In the collection clause of the English Protestant missionary is analyzed also

Dzhejna, devoted sinologicheskim to works of members of the Beijing spiritual mission, its library, Russian travel to China. About all achievements of the Russian science, highly estimated Dzhejnom, hieromonk Alex writes very in detail, lists the published and not published works of Russian missionaries, scientists and travellers, gives the analysis and translation into Russian of the text of the address of the Beijing Christians to archimandrite to the Palladium (Kafarovu), and also names (are resulted in a hieroglyphic writing, Russian transcription and translation) and the brief summary 741 ksilografa, stored in library of mission.

The Second appendix - " Missionary dialogues of M. Richchi with the Chinese scientist about christianity and jazychestve with the review of the eeoaenei-church, Catholic literature with XVI on XVII item " (valuable theological research and the bibliographic directory) - is devoted to well-known Italian jesuit Matteo Richchi (1552-1609). Giving translation and the analysis of one of its works katehizatorskogo a structure, hieromonk Alex emphasizes its value as the sample of use Chinese konfutsianskih texts with the purpose of distribution of Christian dogma. It marked, that M. Richchi skilfully addressed in the propovednicheskoj activity to " to the genius of the Chinese language and spirit national ". Therefore Alex recommended to acquaint Russian missionaries and pupils of spiritual educational institutions with this experience.

Speaking about the Catholic literature, hieromonk Alex paid attention to a subtlety, legibility and care of Catholic seminary students in a choice and translation of the Chinese compositions into latin language and theological works - on Chinese. In the collection the list of the works published by Catholic missionaries in China in XVI-XVIII centuries is resulted.

The Third appendix - " a?aaia-patriarchal dynasties of tsars assiro-aaaeeiiee and Persia, China, and also at Jews and mohammedans ". Work above it hieromonk Alex has begun in Beijing in 1887 This research by interestingly ethnographic supervision first of all concerning features of patriarchal family and a sort at Chineses, and their comparison with family attitudes vavilonjan, Jews and Romans. The author acquaints the reader also with the Chinese system letoschislenija and places comparative chronological tables of Chineses and people of the Near East.

During same time hieromonk Alex has published also three-volume " History of the aiaeeenei-American Bible " 19. Product it (1456 with.), almost not conceding on volume " to History of the Bible in the East ", it is devoted " to history of the aiaeeenei-American Bible, its alphabet, translations, texts, editions, literatures, interpretation (ekzegezy), to the review of bible societies, their geography, the finance, etc. ". In the first (preparatory) volume of this work it is told about translations of the Scriptus into English, Greek and some east languages (Chinese, Iranian, turkish, etc.), And also about its distribution to the countries of the East. In the second and third volumes named by the author especial, the sketch of features of English system of the letter in connection with translation of the Bible is given, and also the history of its translations into German, French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese languages is stated, spoken about the attitude to translations of texts of the Scriptus of Catholic and Protestant Churches. Questions of mutual relations of these two faiths are considered, sights and activity of the American Protestant sects are characterized. In this work hieromonk Alex gives the big place to a problem of missionary work and the organization of bible societies in this connection in its research the weight of data of help character about the missionary and bible organizations contains, their number, the budget, etc.

Other Two works ieromonaha Alex ---" eeoaenei-Russian conversations on northern Beijing adverb " and " Sketches of the Chinese monuments of architecture " were not published because of absence of money, though for proceedings on representation of the iaa?-public prosecutor of the Most holy Synod K.P. pobedonostseva the author has received imperial gratitude 7.08.1893, and 25.11.1893 emperor Alexander III in commemoration of scientific and missionary merits ieromonaha Alex 10.12.1895 of the scientific monk the a widow empress Maria Fedorovna who has thanked the author for its researches " History of the Bible in East " and " a?aaia-patriarchal dynasties " which it has studied, as she said, with the great pleasure awards it napersnym Kabinetskim Its cross Imperial Aaee?anoaa20. has accepted in Gatchinskom a palace. Works ieromonaha Alex also have been favourably met by a lot of domestic and foreign scientific institutes, including St.-Petersburg spiritual academy and seminary, various committees of a bible society, etc., and highly certified by minister of education I.D.Deljanovym, English bishop Durgemskim B.F.Vestkotom, a member of the American committee of a bible society of D.Printsem. 12.05.1895 ieromonah Alex has said a parting word before naval cadets leaving in navigation, cadets and the officers, become by its last product published in a press.

11.10.1895 hieromonk Alex submits the application on a secondary trip to China, the idea about which at it ripened with 1889 to It it would be desirable to collect as much as possible materials and sources for end of the missionary report. Having received on road and the device 2435 rbl. 14 copeck, hieromonk Alex has left to Beijing where has safely arrived in February, 1896 Having stayed here up to 1897, it has considerably expanded the kitaisticheskuju a collection, getting numerous Buddhist and daosskie compositions, hrestomatii, etc. its offer on acquaintance with the Chinese art of Russian artists Is worthy legal texts, subjects of art. 4.10.1897 it has addressed in the Imperial Academy of arts with the request " to send to Beijing the architect and a small handful of Russian artists.., they at all would not lose in what. Through them the Academy could have excellent assistants in studying pearls of east art and intermediaries in the message of the knowledge highly put in Russia and the Europe " 21. Possibly, this offer was not accepted, for neither the architect, nor artists in China and have not appeared.

In this arrival hieromonk Alex executed also the direct duties of the cleric in Tianjin for seamen of Russian militarians ei?aaeae22.

In 1897 at it has occured the hardest psychological failure which has put an end to its career of the scientific missionary. Probably, that the aggravation of illness dozed in it was caused with the conflict to the chief of mission by archimandrite Innokentiem (Figurovskim). In papers of the Most holy Synod the denunciation ieromonaha Alex on the immediate superior was kept. By its text and the general spirit, such complaint could write only sincerely sick ?aeiaae23. Unlike former very tactful chief of archimandrite Amfilohija (Lutovinova) archimandrite Innokenty at once has done the utmost to exclude from structure of mission objectionable to it the priest. In reply to the offer of the chief of mission 15.05.1898 has defined the Most holy Synod to send ieromonaha of Alex on rest in Optinskuju Vvedenskuju deserts Kozelskuju with preservation of the right to carrying gold napersnogo e?anoa24. The decision of the maximum church instance proved to be true the imperial decree from 24.01.1900 a.25.

So has begun new and in a life ieromonaha Alex optinsky the period which has come to the end in March 1919 or 1920 Sent in deserts ieromonahu the Most holy Synod has defined last not full (in 600 rbl.) The pension put after ten years of work in mission, and 433 rbl. 33 copeck for it has stayed there nine years, one month and three aiy26. On those times it there was very much the greater money enabled Alex not only comfortably to live, but also to get necessary books, to increase the private collection and at desire even to be printed. However to realize available opportunities father Alex and has not managed. Associates saw in it mentally unbalanced, sick person. And circumstances of a life did not favour to realization of its plans. It worked alone, not having any communications with the scientific world. In May, 1904 Alex has decided to leave a monastery and to marry on shestnadtsatiletnej to the girl, the daughter of one local pomeshchitsy. It addresses with numerous requests in a local consistory and the Most holy Synod about deposition of a dignity, rasstrizhenii and leaving from desert Optinoj. It signs the applications as " Alexander Nikolaevich Vinogradov was ieromonah Alex ". However any of these instances of its applications has not supported. Possibly, their position was influenced with the characteristic given ieromonahu to Alex (Vinogradovu) by prior Optinoj of desert by archimandrite Ksenofontom and bishop Kaluga and Bohr Veniamin (Muratovskim). Last in general considered it " maniakom, the important scientific important scientific and first class artist ", and now also " maniakom matrimonialnym " 27. It recommended the Most holy Synod to deprive with its pension in case of persistence Vinogradova, " for will not find to itself more anywhere a quiet life " 28. From 8.06.1904 the Most holy Synod ieromonahu in its applications has given up to Alex In the final decision, having charged at the same time " It Preosvjashchenstvu (lord Veniamin. - M.) to assign to the prior ? care and supervision for ieromonahom Alex, not constraining, as far as possible, its literary and art employment " 29.

All the subsequent plans ieromonaha Alex (Vinogradova) to leave deserts Optinu invariable fell. It was not possible to move to it to Moscow to work there at university, to receive havens in Bohr Pafnutevskom a monastery. It has not achieved and sanctions to pass examinations on a scientific degree neither in St.-Petersburg, nor in Moskovsk universities. Its references in the Imperial Academy of arts with the purpose of reception of a rank of the academician deviated, for it was not the original artist, and only "kopiistom". The most holy Synod has disregarded the application ieromonaha Alex about the sanction to it of teaching of philology, krititsizma, archeology, history of art.

However despite of a painful condition and as a whole adverse conditions of a life, hieromonk Alex continued to be engaged actively in deserts Optinoj sinologiej, Russian history, the Byzantian church architecture, wrote sermons and lectures by days sacred, drew much, tried to be engaged in enlightenment. In 1907 it had been translated from the French language work Kusho devoted to the Byzantian church architecture, and are copied enclosed to it ?a?oa?e30. It continued to be engaged in archeology and has collected an interesting material at "Massacre", t. e. In that place where in 1238 inhabitants of Kozelsk battled to armies to Bath-khan (Batyja). The finds found out here have resulted ieromonaha Alex in an idea on creation in a Kozelsk of a monument " in memory of the events which have been gone through Rossieju ? during an epoch of a mongolo-tatar and Chinese yoke 1238 " . It even has prepared an explanatory note for own drawings and not built iaiyoieea31. Employment by archeology have induced father Alex to undertake a writing of new research " About the iiiaiei-Turkic states of the East Europe ". In a substantiation of this idea it has directed to the Imperial Academy of arts an explanatory note about " to struggle of Russia during the iiiaiei-Chinese period, about value of this, gradual clearing of Russian and an increment of territories " 32.

From educational offers ieromonaha Alex optinskogo the period are known: the repeated offer of the Imperial Academy of arts on a direction of Russian artists to China and about opening in Academy of east corner similar Viennese, " with the educational purpose ", about opening in Russia under its (Academies) " influence, encouragement and protection " schools of the fine arts, about creation of art school and a museum in a Eaeoaa.33. 9.08.1907 it has informed the Imperial Academy of arts that wishes to send to Beijing a portrait of ruling emperor Guansjuja with the wife and the niece as ostensibly " used protection bogdyhana, and this acquaintance will help Russian artists if they have ventured to be to China for travel and art activity " 34. At all doubtfulness of the statement about protection Guansjuja which, obviously, much could and mean not so during regentstva omnipotent empress Tsysi, causes interest the fact of the offer on assistance of Academy " to organization of school of drawing in China for Chineses ", that will help " to rapproachement of a creative power Russian and Chinese " 35. The answer of a management of Academy to this offer is unknown. Most likely, it simply has not followed the same as there were without attention and all Alex's set forth above projects.

Being in deserts Optinoj, hieromonk Alex drew much. Already mentioned lord Veniamin 20.06.1905 wrote to the Most holy Synod: " I in its premise was. It all is almost forced by the different pictures written by it " 36. It painted with the icons and pictures and decorated monastic trapeznuju and one of temples of a monastery. To the 300 anniversary of reign of the house of Romanovs it had been issued two galleries: the first consisted of portraits of grand dukes and tsars Russian, and also metropolitans of Russian Orthodox Church and other spiritual persons (30 spears), the second has been devoted to " different east monuments " (10 spears).

Being afraid, that these and other valuable materials which got and have been taken out by it from many corners of Russia and China, can be gone for a science and art, hieromonk Alex as early as in 1911 asked the iaa?-public prosecutor of the Most holy Synod V.K. Sablera to get this collection weighed of 200 poods, found room on 17 carts. In the similar reference per 1913 in the Moscow university it wrote about 12 boxes of books and 5 boxes of pictures which transportation would need 7-8 supply, and cost of transportation has made 360 roubles. The Most holy Synod, university have not responded to these offers.

The Significant number of works of this period remains in a scientific heritage ieromonaha Alex. First, it continued to work on the missionary report " History of the Bible in the East ", secondly, was engaged in translations, thirdly, created manuals, dictionaries, wrote clauses concerning a lexicography, grammar, phonetics, fourthly, again has addressed to problems uranografii and has prepared original researches in this area.

In opinion well familiar with a scientific heritage ieromonaha Alex N.I.Konrada, optinsky sinolog, in many respects leaned publications of the West-European predecessors and creatively them processing, has managed to create original i?iecaaaaiey37.

Concerning its first group sinologicheskih works of the given period, we shall stop first of all on continuation of the appendix to the first volume " Histories of the Bible in the East " 38. In this appendix it has entered a number of the new materials received by it after the second trip to China therefore it has turned, according to most ieromonaha Alex, into the collection-o?anoiiaoe?. The volume of the appendix, under the statement of the author, made 15, and under the typographical estimate of 10 quires. The text of a greater part of the appendix and two author's forewords to it, unfortunately, incomplete, is stored in personal archive O.P. Petrovoj. In the foreword to the appendix it is underlined, that it totals 23 clauses, or an article (152 leaves of the manuscript). As in the published first volume seven clauses have been placed, Alex has continued the appendix from the eighth and has finished the thirty first article. In archive Petrovoj it was kept only 

11 articles (VIII-XV, XXI, XXII, XXX). Some articles (IX-X, XII-XIII, XIV-XV) are dual.

The Article VIII Cin ljuli " includes translations of clauses and decisions of the manchurian dynasty, corrected China with 1644 for 1911 incorporated by the general name " Yes (namely: fragments gl. 91 about inspection of the grounds, gl. 75 about families and persons, gl. 114 about an illegal matrimony and translations of clauses concerning questions of inheritance).

The Article IX is devoted "TSzintsze", t. e. " To a note about studying the <Chinese> classical books (tszinov) and to differences, remarks in them in comparison with the past ". Article X is devoted to reasonings of Chinese wise man-reform-oi?a Van Anshi (1021-1086) about reading the books containing the doctrines against Konfutsija and a canon accepted in a society; XI - to rules ven-aaia concerning education and formation of " noble youth ". In an article XII the description of imperial schools and other establishments of an educational structure with the appendix of their names and kinds contains. The article XIII narrates about a subject of education and methods of training in the Chinese higher school on the basis of the composition "Sjaotszy"; in an article XIV it is told about the Chinese compositions at examinations (kao); the article XV states the doctrine about a way of the scientist ("TSjujsin"), including " moral behaviour and following to constant principles and rules during lives and its external signs distinguishing from other people ".

In an article XXI Mukden (a patrimonial ancestral lands of manchurian emperors) is spoken about carry of the image of the died emperor Daoguana and its personal things on November, 26th, 1868 from Beijing in a; in an article XXII the enoi?eei-ethno-graphic review of people occupied the Central Asia and China is given; the review is based on J.Klaprota's used, in turn, the Chinese sources works. Article XXX is devoted to comparison of a calligraphy and a grammatical system of the Chinese language to a Hebrew.

Except for an article XVI which text is author's translation of the Chinese sources "TSzjabao" and "Lejshu", the others are in full or in part based on D.Legzha's translations, Muller, D.Edkinsa's M., etc. the Maintenance presented in assembly O.P. Petrovoj articles testifies to interest of their author first of all to jurisprudence, education and family attitudes.

The First attempt ieromonaha Alex to publish the appendix to the first volume " Histories of the Bible in the East ", by its letter to minister of education I.D.Deljanovu, has been undertaken in 1895 After additional work above the appendix it intended to give it in Kaluga provincial tipo-a?aoe?, but was refused. In 1913 it has agreed about the edition of the appendix in G.I.Iljutovicha's private printing house in a Kozelsk, but for the unknown reasons and has not carried out the intention.

To 1904 hieromonk Alex has finished the second volume of the missionary report in two parts and five books as which it considered " as the most important and essential " 39. In 1908 it planned its edition, however and this time the plan has not been realized because of absence in deserts Optinoj of a printing house. The second volume of the report was devoted to the review of texts translations of the Scriptus " on different east languages and in China - on advantage ". In this work hieromonk Alex has considered and has commented not only all on texts of translations of the Bible on various dialects of the Chinese language, but also on manchurian, Mongolian, Tibetan, Korean, Japanese languages, and also has given the review of east literature on sanskritologii and buddologii " with kartinoju alphabets " listed ycueia40. The third volume was on a plan of father Alex by continuation second, under the certificate of academician N.I. Eii?aaa41, remained not completed, concerned translations of the Scriptus on Persian, turkish, Arabian, Armenian, Georgian, burmese, Vietnamese and other languages with corresponding explanations of features of their writing and grammar. Besides in the third volume the bibliography and the index to all three volumes are placed. However, as well as the second, third volume ieromonahu to Alex to publish it was not possible, despite of the sanction of Acceptable committee. It considered this work as the most important and essential study on the oriental studies, carried on advantage kitaevedchesky oa?aeoa?42.

To its second group sinologicheskih works concern, as it was mentioned above, translations. Feature ieromonaha Alex as translator consists that it simultaneously was both the commentator, and the composer of the hieroglyphic index, and the designer of own translation. Such translation actually was independent scientific work. An example of such work is translated it shortly before death from the French language " Sacred edikt " ("SHenjuj") 43 - manuals of three emperors tsinskoj (manchurian) dynasty SHunchzhi, Kansi and JUnchzhena to Chinese people (360 hand-written sheets). To the translation father Alex has added the illustrated comment published in 1879 in English " SHenjuj sjanshaj ". Pictures and hieroglyphs it thus has drawn again all, and also has made an index of the Chinese words in Russian and English transcription (10 thousand signs) 44.

Alongside with translations hieromonk Alex was engaged sinologicheskimi in works of oa?eiaii-service and o?aaii-methodical character. In its letters to the iaa?-public prosecutor of the Most holy Synod V.K. Sableru from 3.06.1911, to metropolitan Kiev and Galitskomu Flavianu (Gorodetsky) from 1.02.1913, in the Moscow university and in the Imperial Academy of arts (both are dated January, 1913) is mentioned completely prepared for printing " the eeoaenei-Russian prayer book on Russian phonetic system with the appendix of the Chinese and slavic texts " 45. This edition molitvoslova intended as for the priests made service in the Chinese language, and for laymen-Chineses. Molitvoslov consisted of two parts; in the first the mainest prays, in the second - extraction from vecherni, utreni and liturgies contained. The hieroglyphic text was accompanied by Russian phonetic transcription and a literal translation, and also the oa?eiaii-slavic text of each of prays.

From created ieromonahom Alex of dictionaries the special place borrows three-volume " the Chinese tonic dictionary located on 12 finaljam JUnmu and 20 initials TSzymu with five accents ", concerning to the third group sinologicheskih works. The purpose of this work - all-round use of dictionary Kansi in Russian kitaevedenii. The first volume of the given study based on processing " Ufan juanin ", ieromonah Alex considered as phonetic addition to dictionary Kansi. In the second volume judgements of the largest West-European scientists about key system of the Chinese hieroglyphs according to materials of the specified dictionary are generalized. In the third volume phonetic parts of hieroglyphs are considered and the problem of the maximal mastering is put by dictionary Eaine46.

Alongside with this rather volumetric dictionary hieromonk Alex has made " the eeoaenei-Russian dictionary on Kalleri " with an arrangement on five tones of hieroglyphs and " Help sinologichesky the dictionary (Propaedeutics for studying the Chinese language) ", the comprising e?eoeei-bibliographic review of researches of the West-European and Russian scientists located in alphabetic order with the instruction on the best Chinese compositions and the editions (volume of 600 sheets of the hand-written text) 47. In these dictionaries it is paid the big attention of a calligraphy, to analytics, phonetics. For evident studying hieroglyphs the author " has reproduced 1040 fonetikov on Kalleri, keys on Kansi, the major hieroglyphs " on V.P.Vasileva and D.A.Peshchurova's works, and also " three systems podcherkov and others skoropisnyh letters ".

Alongside with evident tables of tracings of hieroglyphs on Kansi and to archimandrite to the Palladium (Kafarovu) father Alex has created phonetic tables of a pronunciation " the Chinese words on the Beijing adverb with use of English, latin, French system of a pronunciation " 48. With the request for the edition of these works it has addressed in the Moscow university, but, obviously, iaoaa?ii49.

Among grammatic works ieromonaha Alex academician N.I.Konrad considers as the most significant finished in 1914 " Grammar of the Chinese language ". Based on works of the West-European scientists, it was completely as it is peculiar for a research manner ieromonaha Alex, is advanced and added by notes and appendices. Besides "Grammar", it had been wrote a significant amount of clauses, devoted to a grammatical system of the Chinese language: " Serial determinant of numerals of the Chinese signs on Grammar Chinese Iakinfa "," Encyclopaedic categories from dictionary Tunchzhi and at Peshchurova "," the Qualifier of the Chinese serial names on JAtesu with Russian translation, with Chinese and English; names numerals "," the Chinese specifier on Vigeru "," the Chinese nouns, adjectives and verbs (on Vigeru) "," Additions to these about names and grammar Perni "," Grammatic note Kuvrera with additions from Vigera ". These clauses (total amount of 196 sheets of the manuscript) ieromonah Alex has completely prepared all to ia?aoe50.

The Fourth group of scientific works of this period, devoted uranografii, is presented by two works. The first, intended for the edition in the Imperial Academy of sciences, - " Comparative-historical uranografija people of the East: (On SHlegelju, Djupjui, SHampolionu, SHilbruku) with the description of the aoaaeenei-Chinese plots. Heavenly spheres are surveyed: Chinese, a?aai-Persian, al-nooe, Egyptian "; the second (1910 is dated) - " the Mainest ikonograficheskie and plastic types in religion of people of the East in connection with astronomical and mythological concepts about the Deity, their value in Christian art " 51. This last of the specified researches vostokovedcheskogo a structure is closely connected with clauses on Russian ikonografii the previous period.

However any of its works optinskogo the period has not been printed, as any of its offers educational and kulturologicheskogo character was not accepted. Requests for rescue of the rare collection have not been accepted at all to consideration.

Lonely and all the forgotten scientist has died of famine. Its tomb was not kept. (it is necessary to mean time and conditions of a writing of this and other clauses induced M.F.Chigrinskogo to restraint and care in statements. In private conversations with N.G.beer and O.V.Shatalov the late scientist, referring to opinion of academician N.I.Konrada, directly spoke, that hieromonk Alex has been starved to death in March, 1919 aieuoaaeeaie52. - the Comment red.). Nowadays all manuscripts, and is possible, and pictures ieromonaha Alex, remained after liquidation in 1926 of a museum of desert Optinoj, are in the Hand-written department of the Russian state library.

1 Given clause has been written to M.F.Chigrinskim in the middle of 80th - the Comment red.

2 History of the aiaeeenei-American Bible. CH. 2. SPb., 1891. I-II.

3 Work has been published by M.F.Chigrinskim with its own comment to clause in the first release of the scientific almanac " the Petersburg oriental studies " for 1992 (with. 339-362). - the Comment red.

4 About it sm.: CHigrinsky M.F.memor O.P.Petrovoj // the Petersburg oriental studies. Vyp. 5.1994. With. 576-578. - the Comment red.

5 In XIX and the beginning of XX century was the lowest scientific degree which is not having modern analogues.

6 duties of the auditor included supervision of manufacture military-actions of proceeding.

7 Vinogradov A.N. About wooden ancient temples of district Vesegonskogo and the some people at them sights, also barrows and embankments on district Vesegonskomu of the Tver province // News IRAO. SPb., 1877. IX. Vyp. I. With. 71-93.

8 Member-employee IRAO could participate in sessions of a society with a vote.

9 Vinogradov A.N.comparative the description and a brief explanation of icon Prisnodevy of Virgin Neopalimyja Kupiny // News IRAO. SPb, 1877. IX. Vyp. I. With. 1-70.

10 Vinogradov A.N. " the Genealogical tree " on monuments Christian ikonografii, 23 okt. 1879 // the Collection of Archeologic institute. SPb., 1879. Kn. 3. Otd. 2. 

WITH. 65-72.

11 Vinogradov A.N.paleographic a collection of prince P.A.Putjatina // Monuments of ancient writing. I. SPb., 1878-1879. With. 214-229.

12 Sm.: Archive of the Russian Geographical society. Razr. 41, op. I, l. 1-104.

13 State Historical archive of St.-Petersburg, f. 119, op. I. ? 2, l. 17.

14 Archive of Institute of history of material culture of the Russian Academy of Science, f. 3, op III. ? 109, l. 28.

15 Vinogradov A.N.monument of wooden church architecture in dioceses of Novgorod, Tver, Yaroslavl, Irkutsk and Krasnoyarsk XVII and XVIII centuries of SPb., 1892.

16 Department of manuscripts and the hand-written book of the Russian State library, f. 120, ? 478, l. 8-9.

17 Sm.: the Russian State Historical archive (RGIA), f. 796, op. 168, ? 2235, 

l. 6; f. 791, ? 2415, l. 5.

18 Rank honourable free obshchnika has been approved by the decree of Empress Ekaterina II in 1764 Up to his 1893 artists and the persons had merits in the field of arts received.

19 Below we have found expedient to place a bibliographic index of all set forth above works ieromonaha Alex: Alex (Vinogradov), ierom. Works of the western Christian missions in China // the Orthodox interlocutor published at the Kazan spiritual academy. 1886. September. With. 43-64. October. With. 189-206; Alex (Vinogradov), ierom. History of the Bible in the East. I. SPb., 1889-1895; Alex (Vinogradov), ierom. The Chinese library and scientific works of members of Imperial spiritual and diplomatic mission in a Beijing or the aye-jing (in China). SPb., 1889; Alex (Vinogradov), ierom. Missionary dialogues of M. Richchi with the Chinese scientist about christianity and jazychestve. The review of the eeoaenei-church, Catholic literature with XVI on XVIII item of SPb., 1889; Alex (Vinogradov), ierom. A?aaia-patriarchal dynasties of tsars in assiro-aaaeeiiee and Persia, China, at Jews and Mohammedans or is patriarchal-dynastic chronology and the theory based on historical monuments on the newest opening and conclusions of a science. SPb., 1895; Alex (Vinogradov), ierom. History of the aiaeeenei-American Bible. T. 1-3. SPb., 1889-1891.

20 Sm.: the Governmental bulletin. ?; Church sheets. ?; RGIA, f. 796, op. 176, ? 3547, l. 11-12.

21 RGIA, f. 796, op. 176, ? 3547, l. 56.

22 Sm.: In the same place, l. 59 61.

23 Sm.: In the same place, l. 15.

24 Sm.: In the same place, l. 27.

25 Sm.: In the same place, l. 55-56.

26 Sm.: RGIA, f. 796, op. 176, ? 3547, l. 15-38, 60-62.

27 RGIA, f. 196, op. 185, ? 646, l. 8.

28 In the same place, l. 24-25.

29 State archive of the Kaluga area, f. 32, op. 2, ? 1565, l. 140-142.

30 Sm.: RGIA, f. 789, op. 162, ? 159, l. 125-137.

31 Sm.: In the same place, l. 79, 199-205.

32 In the same place, l. 206-226.

33 Sm.: In the same place, l. 108, 138-139.

34 In the same place, l. 138-139.

35 In the same place, l. 139.

36 RGIA, f. 196, op. 185, ? 646, l. 25.

37 Sm.: Personal archive O.P. Petrovoj, N.I.Konrada's folder, l. 11, 13.

38 Sm.: In the same place, l. 86-147.

39 In the same place, l. 57.

40 Sm.: In the same place, l. 90.

41 Sm.: In the same place, l. 16.

42 Sm.: In the same place, l. 16, 90.

43 Author of the French translation was the professor of college Tunvenguan in Beijing F.Piri.

44 Personal archive O.P. Petrovoj, N.I.Konrada's folder, l. 17-18.

45 In the same place, l. 73-74.

46 Sm.: In the same place, l. 12-13.

47 Sm.: In the same place, l. 13-14.

48 In the same place, l. 164-165.

49 Sm.: In the same place, l. 75-76.

50 Sm.: In the same place, l. 10-11.

51 In the same place, l. 18-19.

52 Same date is underlined to death (March, 1919) in published clause: CHigrinsky M.F.forg entsiklopedist // the Science and religion. 1991. ? 8. With. 5.

Chigrinskij M.F., 2000

Clause is published in author's edition.